Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene

@article{Bolotin2009ObservationOT,
  title={Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene},
  author={Kirill I Bolotin and Fereshte Ghahari and Michael D. Shulman and Horst L. Stormer and Philip Kim},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={462},
  pages={196-199}
}
When electrons are confined in two dimensions and subject to strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb interactions between them can become very strong, leading to the formation of correlated states of matter, such as the fractional quantum Hall liquid. In this strong quantum regime, electrons and magnetic flux quanta bind to form complex composite quasiparticles with fractional electronic charge; these are manifest in transport measurements of the Hall conductivity as rational fractions of the… Expand
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