Observation of single top-quark production.

@article{Abazov2009ObservationOS,
  title={Observation of single top-quark production.},
  author={Victor Mukhamedovich Abazov and B. Abbott and Maris Abolins and Bannanje Sripath Acharya and Mark Raymond Adams and T. Adams and Ernest Aguil{\'o} and Mahsana Ahsan and Gennady Alexeev and Georgy Alkhazov and Andrew Alton and George Alverson and G. A. Alves and Lucian Stefan Ancu and Timothy R. Andeen and Meghan Anzelc and M. Aoki and Yannick Arnoud and Mikhail Arov and M L Arthaud and Andrew Warren Askew and Barbro {\AA}sman and Oleksiy Vladimirovich Atramentov and C. Avila and John Alexander Backusmayes and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Badaud and L. Bagby and B. Yu. Baldin and Dmitry Vladimirovich Bandurin and Piyali Banerjee and S. w. Banerjee and Emanuela Barberis and A. F. Barfuss and P. Bargassa and P. Baringer and J. L. Barreto and Joel F. Bartlett and Ursula Bassler and Daniel A. Bauer and S. Beale and A. Bean and M. Begalli and M. Begel and Camille B{\'e}langer-Champagne and Leo Bellantoni and Angela Maria Bellavance and J. A. Benitez and Suman Bala Beri and Gregorio Bernardi and Ralf Patrick Bernhard and I. A. Bertram and Marc Besançon and R. Beuselinck and V. A. Bezzubov and Pushpalatha C. Bhat and Vipin Bhatnagar and Gerald Charles Blazey and Susan K. Blessing and Kenneth Bloom and Amber Boehnlein and Daniel Boline and T. Bolton and Edward E. Boos and G. Borissov and Tamal Bose and Andrew Gerhart Brandt and R. Brock and G. Brooijmans and Alan David Bross and D. N. Brown and Xuebing Bu and Norman Buchanan and D. Bruce Buchholz and Marc Buehler and Volker Buescher and Viacheslav Yevgenyevich Bunichev and S. Burdin and T. H. Burnett and Claus Peter Buszello and P. Calfayan and Betty Calpas and S. Calvet and Jochen Cammin and M. A. Carrasco-Lizarraga and E. Carrera and W. Carvalho and Brendan Cameron Kieran Casey and Heriberto Castilla-Valdez and Sayan K. Chakrabarti and Dhiman Chakraborty and K. M. Chan and A. Chandra and E. Cheu and David Cho and S Choi and B. C. Choudhary and Leonard Steven Christofek and T. Christoudias and Selcuk Cihangir and Daniel Claes and Justace Clutter and Y. Coadou and Mark S. Cooke and William Edward Cooper and Marjorie D. Corcoran and F. Couderc and M. C. Cousinou and S. Cr{\'e}p{\'e}-Renaudin and Vesna Cuplov and David Cutts and Mikołaj {\'C}wiok and A. Das and Gavin John Davies and Kaushik De and S. J. de Jong and E. De La Cruz-Burelo and K. Devaughan and F. Deliot and Marcel Demarteau and Regina Demina and Dmitri Denisov and Sergei P. Denisov and Satish V. Desai and H. Thomas Diehl and M. Diesburg and A. Dominguez and Tyler Dorland and Anand Kumar Dubey and Lev Dudko and L. Duflot and Daniel Duggan and A. Duperrin and Suneel Dutt and A. S. Dyshkant and Michael Eads and Daniel Edmunds and John Anthony Ellison and Victor Daniel Elvira and Y. Enari and Sarah Catherine Eno and P. F. Ermolov and M. Escalier and H. Evans and Alexey Evdokimov and Valeri N Evdokimov and Alexey V. Ferapontov and Thomas Ferbel and Frank Fiedler and Frank Filthaut and W. C. Fisher and H. Eugene Fisk and Michael R. Fortner and H. Fox and Shaohua Fu and Stuart Fuess and Thomas Gadfort and C. Galea and Ar{\'a}n Garc{\'i}a-Bellido and Vladimir Gavrilov and Pascal Gay and Walter M. Geist and W. Geng and C. E. Gerber and Yuri Gershtein and D. Gillberg and George Ginther and Bernardo J. A Gomez and A. G. Goussiou and Paul D. Grannis and Sebastien Greder and Herbert Greenlee and Zeno Dixon Greenwood and E. M. Gregores and G{\'e}rald Grenier and Ph. Gris and J.-F. Grivaz and A. Grohsjean and S. Gr{\"u}nendahl and M. W. Gr{\"u}newald and F. Guo and J. Guo and Gustavo Gutierrez and P. Gutierrez and A. Haas and Nicholas John Hadley and Petra Haefner and S. Hagopian and J. Haley and I. Hall and R. E. Hall and L. Han and K. Harder and A Harel and John Michael Hauptman and J. M. Hays and T. Hebbeker and David R. Hedin and J. Hegeman and A. P. Heinson and Ulrich Heintz and Carsten Hensel and Ken Herner and Gavin Hesketh and Michael D. Hildreth and R. Hirosky and T. Hoang and J. Hobbs and Bruce Hoeneisen and Marc Hohlfeld and Shahadat Hossain and Peter Houben and Y. L. Hu and Z. Hubacek and N. K. Huske and Vladim{\'i}r Hynek and I. Iashvili and Robert Illingworth and Albert Shunji Ito and Shabnam Jabeen and Michel Jaffr{\'e} and S Jain and Karl Jakobs and David Olivier Jamin and Chad Jarvis and Richard L. Jesik and K. A. Johns and C. A. Johnson and M. E. Johnson and D. Johnston and Alan M. Jonckheere and Patrik Jonsson and Aurelio Juste and Eric Kajfasz and Dmitrii Karmanov and Penelope A. Kasper and Ioannis Katsanos and Venkatesh S. Kaushik and R. Kehoe and S. Kermiche and Norik Khalatyan and A. Khanov and A. I. Kharchilava and Yuri N Kharzheev and David Khatidze and T J Kim and Michael H. Kirby and Matthias E. W. Kirsch and B. Klima and Jatinder Mohan Kohli and Jens Peter Konrath and Alexander Kozelov and James Alexander Kraus and T. Kuhl and Anurag Kumar and A. Kupco and Tibor Kurca and Vadim Kuzmin and J. Kvita and F Lacroix and D. Lam and Sabine Lammers and Greg Landsberg and Paul L. G. Lebrun and W. M. Lee and Alexander Leflat and J{\'e}r{\'e}mie Lellouch and J. Li and L. Li and Q. Z. Li and S. M. Lietti and J. K. Lim and D. Lincoln and J. T. Linnemann and V. V. Lipaev and Richard Lipton and Yichen Liu and Z. Liu and A. A. Lobodenko and M. Lokaj{\'i}cek and Peter Love and H. J. Lubatti and Ren{\'e} Luna-Garc{\'i}a and Adam L. Lyon and A. K. A. Maciel and Dennis S. Mackin and P. M{\"a}ttig and Alan Magerkurth and Prolay Kumar Mal and H. Brandao Malbouisson and S. Malik and Vladimir L Malyshev and Y. Maravin and Brian Thomas Martin and R. L. Mccarthy and Carrie McGivern and M. M. Meijer and Alex Melnitchouk and L. Mendoza and P G Mercadante and Mikhail M Merkin and K. W. Merritt and Andreas Bernhard Meyer and J. P. Meyer and Jovan Mitrevski and Rk K. Mommsen and Naba Kumar Mondal and R. W. Moore and Tania Moulik and G. S. Muanza and Michael Mulhearn and Olav Mundal and L. Mundim and E. Nagy and M. Naimuddin and Meenakshi Narain and H. A. Neal and Juan Pablo Negret and P. V. Neustroev and H. Nilsen and Helio Nogima and Sergio Ferraz Novaes and Thomas Nunnemann and D. C. O’Neil and G. Z. Obrant and Christophe Ochando and Dmitry Onoprienko and Jes{\'u}s Orduna and Nobuaki Oshima and Nicolas Osman and Jyotsna Osta and Roman Otec and G. Otero y Garzon and M. Owen and Mark Anthony Padilla and Paul Padley and Monica Pangilinan and Neeti Parashar and S.-J. Park and S. K. Park and J. A. Parsons and R. Bruce Partridge and Nirmalya Parua and Abid Patwa and G. Pawloski and B Penning and Maxim A. Perfilov and Krisztian Peters and Yvonne Peters and Pierre P{\'e}troff and R. Piegaia and Jeff Piper and Marc-Andr{\'e} Pleier and P. L. M. Podesta-Lerma and Vladimir Podstavkov and Yu.A Pogorelov and Maria Elena Pol and P. A. Polozov and Alexey V. Popov and Christopher Thomas Potter and W.L. Prado Da Silva and Harrison B. Prosper and S. Protopopescu and J. Qian and Arnulf Quadt and B. Quinn and A. Rakitine and Murilo Santana Rangel and K. Ranjan and Peter Ratoff and Peter Renkel and Phillip Rich and Michael Rijssenbeek and Isabelle Ripp-Baudot and F. Rizatdinova and S. J. Q. Robinson and R. F. Rodrigues and Mandy Kathleen Rominsky and C Royon and Paul Rubinov and Randy C. Ruchti and Grigory Safronov and G. Sajot and A. Sanchez-Hernandez and Michiel P. Sanders and Batbold Sanghi and Graham Savage and L. Sawyer and T. Scanlon and D. Schaile and R. D. Schamberger and Yu. A. Scheglov and H. Schellman and Thorsten Dirk Schliephake and Sarah Schlobohm and C. Schwanenberger and R. Schwienhorst and Jadranka Sekaric and Horst Severini and E. Shabalina and Mansoora Shamim and Viatcheslav Shary and A. A. Shchukin and Ram Krishen Shivpuri and Vanja Siccardi and Vladislav {\vS}im{\'a}k and Vladimir I. Sirotenko and P. Skubic and Patrick Slattery and Dmitri Smirnov and Gregory R. Snow and J. Snow and S. Snyder and S. S{\"o}ldner-Rembold and Lars Sonnenschein and Andr{\'e} Sopczak and Mark Sosebee and Karel Soustruznik and Barry S. Spurlock and J. Stark and Viatcheslav Stolin and Daniela Stoyanova and J. Strandberg and Sara Strandberg and Michael Allen Strang and Emanuel Strauss and Michael Strauss and R. Str{\"o}hmer and D Strom and Linda G. Stutte and S. Sumowidagdo and Peter Svoisky and Maiko Takahashi and Andres Jorge Tanasijczuk and W. Taylor and B. Tiller and F. Tissandier and M. Titov and Valeriy Tokmenin and Ingo Torchiani and D. Tsybychev and Boris Tuchming and C. Tully and P. M. Tuts and Rahmi Unalan and L. N. Uvarov and Sergey Uvarov and S. Uzunyan and B. Vachon and P. J. van den Berg and R. Van Kooten and W. M. van Leeuwen and Nikos Varelas and E. W. Varnes and Igor A. Vasilyev and Patrice Verdier and Leonid S Vertogradov and M Verzocchi and D. Vilanova and P. Vint and P. Vokac and Mikko Voutilainen and Rl Wagner and Horst D. Wahl and M. H.L.S. Wang and Jerzy B. Warchoł and Gordon T. Watts and Mitchell Wayne and Gustav Weber and M. S. Weber and L. Welty-Rieger and Andreas Wenger and Matthew J. Wetstein and A. J. White and Daniel C Wicke and M. R. J. Williams and Grant W. Wilson and Stephen J. Wimpenny and M. Wobisch and Darien Wood and T. R. Wyatt and Y. Y. Xie and C. K. Xu and S. Yacoob and Ryuji Yamada and W.-C. Yang and Tomohiro Yasuda and Y. A. Yatsunenko and Zhenyu Ye and Hang Yin and Kin Yip and Hwi Dong Yoo and S. W. Youn and J. Yu and C. Zeitnitz and Shannon Zelitch and Tianchi Zhao and B. Q. Zhou and J. Zhu and Marek Zieliński and D. Zieminska},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2009},
  volume={103 9},
  pages={
          092001
        }
}
We report observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of sigma(pp[over ]--> tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 + or - 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this… Expand

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