Observation of electroweak single top-quark production.

@article{Aaltonen2009ObservationOE,
  title={Observation of electroweak single top-quark production.},
  author={T. Aaltonen and J. Adelman and Takashi Akimoto and Barbara Alvarez Gonzalez and Silvia Amerio and D. Amidei and Anton Anastassov and Alberto Annovi and Jaroslav Anto{\vs} and Giorgio Apollinari and A. Apresyan and Tetsuo Arisawa and A. M. Artikov and W. J. Ashmanskas and A. Attal and Adam Aurisano and Farrukh Azfar and W. F. Badgett and Angela. Barbaro-Galtieri and V E Barnes and B. A. Barnett and P. Barria and Valeria Bartsch and Gerry Bauer and P. H. Beauchemin and Franco Bedeschi and D. T. Beecher and Satyajit Behari and Giorgio Bellettini and James Nugent Bellinger and D. Benjamin and A. Beretvas and J{\"u}rgen Beringer and Anwar Ahmad Bhatti and Morris Binkley and D. Bisello and Ilija Bizjak and R. E. Blair and C. Blocker and Barry Blumenfeld and A. Bocci and A. Bodek and V. Boisvert and Gino Bolla and Daniela Bortoletto and J. Boudreau and A. Boveia and B. Brau and Alice Patricia Bridgeman and Luca Brigliadori and Carl Bromberg and Erik M. Brubaker and Ju. A. Budagov and H. S. Budd and Sarah Rebecca Budd and Stephen Burke and K. Burkett and G. Busetto and Peter John Bussey and A. Buzatu and K. L. Byrum and Susana Cabrera and Constantino Calancha and Mario Campanelli and Myron K. Campbell and Florencia Canelli and Anadi Canepa and Benjamin P. Carls and Duncan Carlsmith and R. Carosi and S. Carrillo and Sebastian Carron and Bruno Casal and M. Casarsa and A Castro and Pierluigi Catastini and D. Cauz and V. Cavaliere and M. Cavalli-Sforza and A. Cerri and L. Cerrito and S. H. Chang and Yong Cheng Chen and Maxwell Chertok and G. Chiarelli and Gouram Chlachidze and Frank Chlebana and K. Cho and Davit Chokheli and J. P. Chou and Georgios Choudalakis and S. H. Chuang and K. S. Chung and W-H. Chung and Y. -S. Chung and Thorsten Chwalek and Ciprian Ciobanu and M. A. Ciocci and A. Clark and David Kendall Clark and Gabriele Compostella and M. E. Convery and J. Conway and Marco Cordelli and Giorgio Cortiana and C. A. Cox and D. J. Cox and Francesco Crescioli and C. Cuenca Almenar and J. Cuevas and Ray Culbertson and J. C. Cully and David Dagenhart and Mousumi Datta and Toby Paul Davies and P. de Barbaro and S. De Cecco and A. J. Deisher and Giuseppe De Lorenzo and Mauro Dell'Orso and Carolina Deluca and Luc Demortier and Jing-ti Deng and M. M. Deninno and P. F. Derwent and P Di Canto and George di Giovanni and Carlo Dionisi and B. Di Ruzza and Jay Richard Dittmann and M. D’Onofrio and Simone L. Donati and P. Dong and J. Donini and Tommaso Dorigo and S. Dube and J. Efron and A Elagin and Robin D. Erbacher and Deborah Errede and Steven Michael Errede and Ricardo Eusebi and H-C. Fang and S. M. Farrington and W. T. Fedorko and R. G. Feild and Michael Feindt and J. P. Fernandez and C. Ferrazza and R. C. Field and Gene Flanagan and Robert David Forrest and M. Frank and M. Franklin and J. C. Freeman and I. Furic and M. Gallinaro and Jason Galyardt and Ford Garberson and J. Garc{\`i}a and A. F. Garfinkel and Paola Garosi and Krzysztof Genser and Heather Gerberich and David W. Gerdes and A. Gessler and S. Giagu and Viktoria Athina Giakoumopoulou and Paola Giannetti and Karen Ruth Gibson and J. L. Gimmell and C. M. Ginsburg and Nikos D. Giokaris and M. P. Giordani and Paolo Giromini and Marina Giunta and Gavril Giurgiu and Vl. V. Glagolev and Douglas Andrew Glenzinski and Michael S. Gold and Nathan Goldschmidt and Alexander Golossanov and Gervasio Gomez and Guillelmo Gomez-Ceballos and Maxim Goncharov and O. Gonz{\~a}lez and Igor Vladimirovich Gorelov and Alfred Goshaw and Konstantin A. Goulianos and Ambra Gresele and Sebastian Grinstein and Carla Grosso-Pilcher and Ulysses Allen Grundler and J. Barreiro Guimar{\~a}es da Costa and Z. Gunay-Unalan and C. Haber and Kristian Allan Hahn and Steve R. Hahn and Eva Halkiadakis and B-Y. Han and J Han and Fabio Happacher and Kazuhiko Hara and Daryl Hare and M. Hare and Sam Harper and R. F. Harr and R M Harris and Mark Patrick Hartz and Kenichi Hatakeyama and C. P. Hays and M. Heck and A. J. Heijboer and J. J. Heinrich and C. Henderson and M. Herndon and J. Heuser and Samantha K. Hewamanage and Dean Hidas and Christopher S. Hill and D. Hirschbuehl and Andrew Hocker and Suen Ray Hou and M. A. Houlden and Shih-Chieh Hsu and B. T. Huffman and Rebecca E. Hughes and U. Husemann and Mahmoud I. Hussein and J. Huston and Joe Incandela and G. Introzzi and Maurizio Iori and A. Ivanov and Eric B. James and Dong Wook Jang and Bo Jayatilaka and E. J. Jeon and Manoj Kumar Jha and Sergo Jindariani and William Joseph Johnson and M. D. Jones and K. K. Joo and Soon Yung Jun and J. E. Jung and T. R. Junk and Teruki Kamon and D. Kar and P. E. Karchin and Yutaka Kato and Robert D. Kephart and Justin Keung and Vadim Khotilovich and Benjamin Kilminster and D. H. Kim and Hyekyeong Kim and Hyeon Woo Kim and Jae Heon Kim and M J Kim and Sung Baek Kim and Sang Jun Kim and Young Keun Kim and N. Kimura and Lawrence E. Kirsch and Sergey Klimenko and Bruce Knuteson and Byeong Rok Ko and Kunitaka Kondo and Dae Jung Kong and Jacobo Konigsberg and Andrey Korytov and A. V. Kotwal and Michal Kreps and J. Kroll and Dan Krop and Nils Krumnack and M. C. Kruse and Vyacheslav Krutelyov and Takashi Kubo and Thomas Kuhr and N. P. Kulkarni and Masakazu Kurata and S. Kwang and A. T. Laasanen and Stefano Lami and Stephan Lammel and Mark Lancaster and R. L. Lander and Kevin Lannon and A. Lath and G. Latino and Ignazio Lazzizzera and T. J. LeCompte and E. H. Lee and H. Lee and See Woo Lee and Stephen R. Leone and J. D. Lewis and Cs Lin and J. Linacre and Mikael Lindgren and E. Lipeles and T. M. Liss and Alison Lister and D. O. Litvintsev and C. L. Liu and T. Liu and N. S. Lockyer and Andrey Loginov and M. Loreti and L. Lovas and Donatella Lucchesi and C. Luci and John D. Lueck and P. Lujan and Patrick Thomas Lukens and Gheorghe Lungu and L. Lyons and J. E. A. Lys and R. Lysak and D. Macqueen and Robyn Leigh Madrak and Kaori Maeshima and Khaldoun Makhoul and Tuula Maki and Petar Maksimovic and Sneha Sirirshkumar Malde and S. Malik and G. Manca and A. Manousakis-katsikakis and Fabrizio Margaroli and C. P. Marino and C. P. Marino and A. D. Martin and V. J. Martin and M. I. Mart{\'i}nez and Roberto Martinez-Ballarin and T. Maruyama and P. Mastrandrea and T. Masubuchi and Mark Mathis and Melvin E. Mattson and Paolo Mazzanti and K. S. Mcfarland and Peter M. McIntyre and Ronan McNulty and A. Mehta and Petteri Mehtala and Aldo Menzione and P. Merkel and Christina Mesropian and Ting Miao and N. Miladinovic and R. J. Miller and C. Mills and Michael Milnik and Ankush Mitra and Guenakh Mitselmakher and Hideki Miyake and Niccol{\`o} Moggi and C. S. Moon and R. W. Moore and M. J. Morello and Jan Morlock and P. A. Movilla Fern{\'a}ndez and Johannes M{\"u}lmenst{\"a}dt and Arunava Mukherjee and Th. Muller and Robert Mumford and Pavel Murat and Manuel Mussini and J. M. Nachtman and Yoshikazu Nagai and A. Nagano and Junji Naganoma and K. R. Nakamura and Itsuo Nakano and A. Napier and Valentin Necula and Jason Michael Nett and C. Neu and M. S. Neubauer and Sebastian Neubauer and J. Nielsen and Lawrence Jay Nodulman and M. R. Norman and Olga Norniella and Emily L. Nurse and Louise Beth Oakes and S. H. Oh and Young Do. Oh and I. Oksuzian and Toru Okusawa and Risto Orava and Kenneth Osterberg and S. Pagan Griso and Enrique Palencia and Vaia Papadimitriou and A. Papaikonomou and A. Paramonov and Brandon Parks and Shabnaz Pashapour and J. Patrick and G. Pauletta and Manfred Paulini and Christoph Paus and Thomas Peiffer and David E. Pellett and Aldo L Penzo and Thomas J. Phillips and Giovanni Maria Piacentino and E. Pianori and Lester Pinera and Kevin T. Pitts and Charles Plager and Lee G. Pondrom and Karolos Potamianos and O. Poukhov and Nicola L. Pounder and F. Prakoshyn and Alexandre P. Pronko and J. Proudfoot and Fotios K Ptohos and E. Pueschel and Giovanni Punzi and Jennifer Marie Pursley and Jonas Rademacker and Anisur Rahaman and Varsha Ramakrishnan and Niharika Ranjan and I. Redondo and Peter B. Renton and Manuel Renz and M. Rescigno and S. Richter and Franco Rimondi and L. Ristori and Aidan Robson and T. Rodrigo and Tatiana Isabel Rodriguez and Edwin Lloyd Rogers and Simona Rolli and Robert M. Roser and M. Rossi and Roberto Rossin and Probir Roy and A. L{\'o}pez Ruiz and James S. Russ and Vadim Liviu Rusu and Britney Rutherford and H. Saarikko and Alex Safonov and W. K. Sakumoto and Oriol Salt{\'o} and L. Santi and Siddhartha Sarkar and L. Sartori and Kazuhisa Sato and Aurore Savoy-Navarro and Philip Schlabach and A Schmidt and Eugene E. Schmidt and M. A. Schmidt and M. P. Schmidt and Michael Henry Schmitt and T. A. Schwarz and L. Scodellaro and Angelo Scribano and F. Scuri and Alexei A. Sedov and Sally Seidel and Y. Seiya and Alexei Semenov and L. Sexton-Kennedy and F. Sforza and A. Sfyrla and S. Z. Shalhout and T. G. Shears and P. F. Shepard and M. Shimojima and Satomi Shiraishi and M. J. Shochet and Y. Shon and Irina Shreyber and Nicolas Produit and Alexei Sisakyan and A. J. Slaughter and Jason M. Slaunwhite and K. Sliwa and Jim Ross Smith and F. D. Snider and Robert Snihur and A. Soha and S. Somalwar and Ver{\'o}nica Sorin and J. Spalding and Teresa Spreitzer and Paola Squillacioti and Marcel Stanitzki and R. D. St. Denis},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2009},
  volume={103 9},
  pages={
          092002
        }
}
We report the observation of single top-quark production using 3.2 fb(-1) of pp[over ] collision data with sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The significance of the observed data is 5.0 standard deviations, and the expected sensitivity for standard model production and decay is in excess of 5.9 standard deviations. Assuming m(t) = 175 GeV/c(2), we measure a cross section of 2.3(-0.5);(+0.6)(stat + syst) pb, extract the CKM matrix-element value |V(tb)| = 0.91 + or… Expand

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