# Observation of a discrete time crystal

@article{Zhang2017ObservationOA, title={Observation of a discrete time crystal}, author={Jie Zhang and Paul W Hess and Antonios Kyprianidis and Patrick Becker and A. C. Lee and Jacob K. Smith and Guido Pagano and Ionut-Dragos Potirniche and Andrew C. Potter and Ashvin Vishwanath and Norman Y. Yao and Christopher R. Monroe}, journal={Nature}, year={2017}, volume={543}, pages={217-220} }

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, including cosmology, particle physics and condensed matter. An example is the breaking of spatial translational symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Using the analogy of crystals in space, the breaking of translational symmetry in time and the emergence of a ‘time crystal’ was recently proposed, but was later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium…

## 590 Citations

Dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a space-time crystal

- PhysicsPhysical Review A
- 2021

We present the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of discrete time translations as recently realized in the space-time crystals of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The nonequilibrium…

Time crystals: Analysis of experimental conditions

- PhysicsPhysical Review A
- 2018

Time crystals are quantum many-body systems which are able to self-organize their motion in a periodic way in time. Discrete time crystals have been experimentally demonstrated in spin systems.…

Observation of a Space-Time Crystal in a Superfluid Quantum Gas.

- Medicine, PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2018

The observation of a space-time crystal using ultracold atoms, where the periodic structure in both space and time is directly visible in the experimental images, paving the way for the usage of space- time crystals for the discovery of novel nonequilibrium phases of matter.

Classical discrete time crystals

- Physics
- 2018

The spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry in periodically driven quantum systems leads to a new phase of matter: the discrete time crystal (DTC). This phase exhibits collective…

Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system

- Physics, Materials ScienceNature
- 2017

This work observes long-lived temporal correlations, experimentally identifies the phase boundary and finds that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions, which opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.

Dynamical quantum phase transitions in discrete time crystals

- PhysicsPhysical Review A
- 2018

Discrete time crystals are related to non-equilibrium dynamics of periodically driven quantum many-body systems where the discrete time translation symmetry of the Hamiltonian is spontaneously broken…

Time crystals in a shaken atom-cavity system

- Physics
- 2019

We demonstrate the emergence of a time crystal of atoms in a high-finesse optical cavity driven by a phase-modulated transverse pump field, resulting in a shaken lattice. This shaken system exhibits…

A colloidal time crystal and its tempomechanical properties

- Physics
- 2021

The spontaneous breaking of symmetries is a widespread phenomenon in physics. When time translational symmetry is spontaneously broken, an exotic nonequilibrium state of matter in which the same…

Exact solution of a boundary time-crystal phase transition: time-translation symmetry breaking and non-Markovian dynamics of correlations

- Physics
- 2021

The breaking of the continuous time-translation symmetry manifests, in Markovian open quantum systems, through the emergence of non-stationary dynamical phases. Systems that display nonequilibrium…

Discrete Time Crystals in the Absence of Manifest Symmetries or Disorder in Open Quantum Systems.

- Physics, MedicinePhysical review letters
- 2019

A semiclassical approach reveals the emergence of a robust discrete time-crystalline phase in the thermodynamic limit in which metastability, dissipation, and interparticle interactions play a crucial role.

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