Observation of Gravitational Waves from Two Neutron Star–Black Hole Coalescences

  title={Observation of Gravitational Waves from Two Neutron Star–Black Hole Coalescences},
  author={The Ligo Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration and T. M. C. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Sheelu Abraham and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Arthur D. Adams and Carl Adams and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Deepali Agarwal and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and Anirban Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Tomotada Akutsu and K. M. Aleman and Gabrielle Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and Alessandro Amato and Shreya Anand and Alena Ananyeva and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Misaki Ando and S. V. Angelova and Stefano Ansoldi and Javier Mauricio Antelis and Sarah Antier and Stephen Appert and Koya Arai and Koji Arai and Yosuke Arai and S. Araki and Akito Araya and M. C. Araya and Joseph S. Areeda and M Ar{\`e}ne and Naoki Aritomi and N. Arnaud and S. M. Aronson and K. G. Arun and Hideki Asada and Yasmeen Asali and Gregory Ashton and Youichi Aso and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and F Aubin and Peter Aufmuth and K. AultONeal and Christopher C. Austin and Stanislav Babak and Francesca Badaracco and M. K. M. Bader and S Bae and Y. Bae and A. M. Baer and S. Bagnasco and Y. Bai and Luca Baiotti and Jonathon T. Baird and R Bajpai and M. S. Ball and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and Mariska M ter Bals and A. Balsamo and Gr{\'e}gory Baltus and Sharan Banagiri and Deepak N. Bankar and Ravindra Sopan Bankar and J. C. B. Barayoga and C. Barbieri and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Pablo J. Barneo and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Mark Andrew Barton and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and Mateusz Bawaj and Joseph Bayley and Amanda Baylor and Marco Bazzan and Bence B'ecsy and Vijay Bedakihale and Michał Bejger and I. Belahcene and V. Benedetto and Deeksha Beniwal and Michael G. Benjamin and Robert Benkel and T. F. Bennett and Joe Bentley and M. BenYaala and Fabio Bergamin and B. K. Berger and Sebastiano Bernuzzi and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and R. Bhandare and A. V. Bhandari and Dripta Bhattacharjee and Shubhagata Bhaumik and J. Bidler and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and R Birney and Ofek Birnholtz and Sebastien Biscans and M. Bischi and Sylvia Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and Bhaskar Biswas and Massimiliano Bitossi and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Jonathan Blackman and Carl Blair and D G Blair and R. M. Blair and Fabrizio Bobba and Nina Bode and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and M. Boldrini and F. Bondu and Edgard Bonilla and Romain Bonnand and Phillip Booker and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Nirban Bose and Sukanta Bose and V Bossilkov and Vincent Boudart and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and P. R. Brady and Alyssa Bramley and A. Branch and Marica Branchesi and J. E. Brau and Matteo Breschi and Tristan Briant and Joseph Briggs and A. Brillet and Marc Brinkmann and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and Jared Brooks and D D Brown and Sharon Brunett and Giovanni Bruno and Robert Jeffrey Bruntz and J. Bryant and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and Riccardo Buscicchio and D. Buskulic and R. L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and M. Caesar and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and H. W. Cain and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and J. D. Callaghan and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Maurizio Canepa and M. Cannavacciuolo and Kipp C. Cannon and H. Cao and J. Cao and Z. Cao and E. Capocasa and E. Capote and Giovanni Carapella and Franco Carbognani and Julian B. Carlin and Matthew Carney and Massimo Carpinelli and Gregorio Carullo and T. L. Carver and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Giuseppe Castaldi and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Pablo Cerd'a-Dur'an and Elisa Cesarini and Walid Chaibi and Kabir Chakravarti and Brittany Champion and Chiwai Chan and C. L. Chan and C. L. Chan and Man Leong Chan and Koustav Chandra and P. Chanial and S. Chao and P R Charlton and Eve A. Chase and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Debarati Chatterjee and M. Chaturvedi and Katerina Chatziioannou and A. D. Chen and C. Chen and H. Y. Chen and J. Chen and K. Chen and X. Chen and Y.-B. Chen and Y.-R. Chen and Z. J. Chen and H. P. Cheng and C. K. Cheong and Hay Yeung Cheung and Hanyu Chia and Francesco Chiadini and C-Y. Chiang and Roberto Chierici and Andrea Chincarini and Maria Luisa Chiofalo and Antonino Chiummo and G. Cho and H. S. Cho and Sarah P. Choate and R. K. Choudhary and Sunil Choudhary and Nelson Christensen and Hyoungseok Chu and Qi Chu and Y-K. Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and K. W. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Paweł Ciecieląg and M. Cie'slar and M. Cifaldi and Alexei A. Ciobanu and Riccardo Ciolfi and Frank Cipriano and A Cirone and Filiberto Clara and E. N. Clark and J A Clark and Leonardo Clarke and Patrick Clearwater and S{\'e}bastien Clesse and F. Cleva and Eugenio Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and David Cohen and L. Cohen and Marta Colleoni and Christophe Collette and Monica Colpi and C. M. Compton and Marcio Constancio and L Conti and S J Cooper and P. Corban and T. R. Corbitt and Isabel Cordero-Carri'on and Silvia Corezzi and K. Rainer Corley and Neil J. Cornish and David Corre and Alessandra Corsi and Samuele Cortese and C. A. Costa and Roberto Cotesta and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Bryce Cousins and Peter Couvares and P. B. Covas and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and T. D. Creighton and Alex Criswell and M. Croquette and S. Gwynne Crowder and J-R. Cudell and Torrey Cullen and Andrew Cumming and R. Cummings and Elena Cuoco and M. Curylo and Tito Dal Canton and Gergely D'alya and A. Dana and L. M. DaneshgaranBajastani and Beatrice D'Angelo and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and C. Darsow-Fromm and Anirban Dasgupta and Laurence Elise Helene Datrier and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and M. Davier and G. S. Davies and Derek Davis and E J Daw and R. Dean and Daniel B. DeBra and M S Deenadayalan and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and V. Del Favero and Federico De Lillo and N. De Lillo and Walter del Pozzo and Lindsay DeMarchi and F. De Matteis and V D’Emilio and Nicholas Demos and Thomas Dent and Antoine Depasse and Roberto De Pietri and Rosario De Rosa and Camilla de Rossi and Riccardo DeSalvo and Robert de Simone and S. V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and M. Diaz-Ortiz and Nicholas Didio and Tim Dietrich and L. Di Fiore and Chiara Di Fronzo and Cinzia Di Giorgio and Fabrizio Di Giovanni and Tristano Di Girolamo and Alberto Di Lieto and B. Ding and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Francesco Di Renzo and Atul K. Divakarla and Alexander Dmitriev and Zoheyr Doctor and L D’Onofrio and Fred Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Iain Dorrington and M. Drago and J C Driggers and Yonat Drori and Zhihui Du and J. G. Ducoin and Peter Dupej and Ofelia Durante and Domenico D'urso and P. A. Duverne and Sheila E. Dwyer and Paul J. Easter and Michael J. Ebersold and G. Eddolls and B Edelman and Tega Boro Edo and O. Edy and Anamaria Effler and Satoshi Eguchi and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and Markus Eisenmann and Robert A. Eisenstein and Aldo Ejlli and Yutaro Enomoto and Luciano de Errico and Reed Essick and H. Estell'es and D Estevez and Zachariah B. Etienne and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Becca Ewing and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and A. M. Farah and Stefania Farinon and B. Farr and Will M. Farr and Nicholas Farrow and E Fauchon-Jones and Marc Favata and Maxime Fays and Mariana A. Fazio and Jon R. Feicht and Martin M. Fejer and F. Feng and Edit Fenyvesi and Deborah Ferguson and {\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez-Galiana and I. Ferrante and T. A. Ferreira and Francesco Fidecaro and Przemysław Figura and Irene Fiori and Maya Fishbach and Rebecca Fisher and Rosalba Fittipaldi and Vincenzo Fiumara and R. Flaminio and Erik Floden and Eric B. Flynn and Heather Fong and Jos{\'e} A. Font and Bartosz Fornal and P W F Forsyth and Alexander Franke and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Clayton Frederick and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and P. Fritschel and Valera Frolov and Gabriele Gaetano Fronz'e and Yoshinori Fujii and Yuta Fujikawa and M. Fukunaga and M. Fukushima and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Bhooshan Gadre and Sebastian M. Gaebel and Jonathan R. Gair and Joseph Gais and Shanika Galaudage and Rossella Gamba and D. Ganapathy and A. Ganguly and D. Gao and Sampada Gaonkar and B Garaventa and C. Garc'ia-N'unez and Cecilio Garc'ia-Quir'os and F. Garufi and Bubba Gateley and Sergio Del Gaudio and V. Gayathri and Guiguo Ge and Gianluca Gemme and A. Gennai and Jimin George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and P. Gewecke and Sudarshan Ghonge and Abhirup Ghosh and Archisman Ghosh and Shaon Ghosh and Shrobana Ghosh and Sourath Ghosh and Bruno Giacomazzo and L Giacoppo and J. A. Giaime and Krystal Giardina and D. R. Gibson and C. Gier and Matthew Giesler and Pulak Ranjan Giri and Francesca Gissi and Jennifer Glanzer and A. E. Gleckl and Patrick Godwin and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and N. Gohlke and Boris Goncharov and Gabriela Gonz'alez and A. Gopakumar and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and B. Grace and Aniello Grado and Massimo Granata and Veronica Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and Philippe Grassia and C. Gray and R Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and R Green and A M Gretarsson and Elizabeth M. Gretarsson and D. Griffith and W. Griffiths and H. L. Griggs and Gianluca Grignani and Andrea Grimaldi and E. W. Grimes and Stephan Grimm and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and P. Gruning and J. G. Guerrero and G. Guidi and A. R. Guimaraes and G. Guix'e and Hitesh Kumar Gulati and H.-K. Guo and Y. Guo and Anchal Gupta and Anuradha Gupta and P. Gupta and E. K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and F. Guzm{\'a}n and S. Ha and Le{\"i}la Haegel and A. Hagiwara and Sadakazu Haino and O Halim and Evan D. Hall and E. Z. Hamilton and Giles D. Hammond and W.-B. Han and Maria Haney and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and Otto A. Hannuksela and H. Hansen and Travis Hansen and James E. Hanson and Thomas Harder and T Hardwick and K. Haris and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and D. Hartwig and Kunihiko Hasegawa and Brynmor Haskell and R. K. Hasskew and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Hattori and K. Haughian and Hideaki Hayakawa and Kazuhiro Hayama and Fergus Hayes and James Healy and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and Jonas Heinze and John Heinzel and H. Heitmann and Frances Hellman and P. Hello and A. F. Helmling-Cornell and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and Eric Hennes and John Hennig and Margot Hennig and Francisco Vivanco and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and P. Hill and Yoshiaki Himemoto and Tanja Hinderer and Adam S. Hines and Yuta Hiranuma and Naoatsu Hirata and Eiichi Hirose and Wynn C. G. Ho and Sven Hochheim and David Jonathan Hofman and J. N. Hohmann and A. Miguel Holgado and Nathan A. Holland and I J Hollows and Zachary J Holmes and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Zhang Hong and Philip F. Hopkins and J. Hough and E J Howell and Charlie Hoy and David Hoyland and Ali Hreibi and B-H. Hsieh and Y. H. Hsu and G-Z. Huang and H-Y. Huang and P. Huang and Y.-C. Huang and Y.-J. Huang and Y-W Huang and M. T. Hubner and A. D. Huddart and Eliu A. Huerta and Barbara J. Hughey and David C. Y. Hui and V. Hui and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and Rachael Huxford and T. Huynh--Dinh and Shougo Ide and Bartosz Idzkowski and Alberto Iess and Bungo Ikenoue and Suyanto Imam and Kohei Inayoshi and Henri Inchausp{\'e} and Craig Ingram and Yuki Inoue and Giuseppe Intini and Kunihito Ioka and Maximiliano Isi and Katharina-Sophie Isleif and K. Ito and Yousuke Itoh and Bala R. Iyer and Keisuke Izumi and V. JaberianHamedan and T. Jacqmin and S. J. Jadhav and Sujata Pavan Jadhav and A L James and A. Z. Jan and Karan Jani and Kamiel Janssens and N. N. Janthalur and Piotr Jaranowski and Dishen Jariwala and Rafel Jaume and Alexander C. Jenkins and C. Jeon and Mariana Jeunon and W. Jia and J. Jiang and H.-B. Jin and G. R. Johns and A. W. Jones and D. I. Jones and J. Daniel Jones and P. G. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and K Jung and Piljong Jung and Jonas Junker and Kenji Kaihotsu and Takaaki Kajita and Mitsuru Kakizaki and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vicky Kalogera and Brittany Kamai and Masahiro Kamiizumi and N Kanda and S Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah Kanner and Y. Kao and Shasvath J. Kapadia and D. P. Kapasi and S. Karat and Christos Karathanasis and Sudarshan Karki and Rahul Kashyap and Marie Kasprzack and Wolfgang Kastaun and Stavros Katsanevas and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Tejinder Kaur and Keita Kawabe and Kyohei Kawaguchi and Nobuyuki Kawai and T. Kawasaki and Fabien K'ef'elian and David Keitel and Joey Shapiro Key and Sovit M. Khadka and F. Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and Nandita Khetan and Mohammad Khursheed and N Kijbunchoo and C. Kim and J. C. Kim and J. H. Kim and K. Kim and W. S. Kim and Y.-M. Kim and C. Kimball and No. Kimura and P. J. King and Maya M. Kinley-Hanlon and R Kirchhoff and J S Kissel and Naoki Kita and Hiroshi Kitazawa and L. Kleybolte and Sergei Klimenko and Alan M. Knee and Timothy D. J. Knowles and Eugene A. Knyazev and Patrick M. Koch and Gideon Koekoek and Yuto Kojima and Keiko Kokeyama and Soumen Koley and P. Kolitsidou and Machiel Kolstein and K. Komori and V. T. Kondrashov and Albert K. H. Kong and Antonios Kontos and Nicola Koper and Mikhail Korobko and Kazuyuki Kotake and Manoj Kovalam and Darby Kozak and C. Kozakai and Ryo Kozu and V. Kringel and N. V. Krishnendu and Andrzej Kr'olak and G. Kuehn and F. Kuei and A. Kumar and P. Kumar and Rahul Kumar and Rakesh Kumar and Jun’ya Kume and Kevin Kuns and C. Kuo and H-S. Kuo and Yasuhiro Kuromiya and Sachiko Kuroyanagi and K. Kusayanagi and K. Kwak and S. Kwang and Danny Laghi and E. Lalande and Tsz Lung Lam and Astrid Lamberts and Michael Landry and Philippe Landry and Benjamin Lane and Ryan N. Lang and Joern Christian Lange and Brian Lantz and Iuri La Rosa and A. Lartaux-Vollard and Paul D. Lasky and Michael Laxen and Albert Lazzarini and C Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Y Lecoeuche and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and H. W. Lee and J. J. Lee and K. H. Lee and Ray-Kuang Lee and J. Lehmann and A. Lemaitre and Erick Leon and Matteo Leonardi and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and J. N. Leviton and A. K. Y. Li and B. Li and J. Li and K. J. L. Li and T. G. F. Li and X. Li and C.Y. Lin and F-K. Lin and F-L. Lin and H. L. Lin and L. C.-C. Lin and Frank Linde and S. D. Linker and J. N. Linley and Tyson B. Littenberg and G. C. Liu and J Liu and K. Liu and X. K. Liu and Miquel Llorens-Monteagudo and Rico K. L. Lo and A. Lockwood and Michelle L J Lollie and L London and Alessandro Longo and Dixeena Lopez and Matteo Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Carlos O. Lousto and Geoffrey Lovelace and Harald Luck and Diana Lumaca and Andrew Lundgren and L. W. Luo and Ronaldas Macas and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and Ian A. O. MacMillan and A. Macquet and Ignacio Maga{\~n}a Hernandez and Fabian Maga{\~n}a-Sandoval and C. Magazz{\`u} and Ryan Magee and Riccardo Maggiore and E. Majorana and C. Makarem and I. Maksimovic and S. Maliakal and A. Malik and Na Man and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and J. Mango and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Michela Mapelli and Fabio Marchesoni and Manuel Marchi{\`o} and F. Marion and Zachary Mark and S. M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Charalampos Markakis and Ashot Markosyan and Aaron Markowitz and Edward Maros and Antonio Marquina and Sylvain Marsat and F. Martelli and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and M Mart{\'i}nez and V. A. Martinez and Katarina Martinovic and Denis Martynov and Edward J. Montgomery Marx and Hossein Masalehdan and K. O. Mason and E. Massera and A. Masserot and Thomas Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and Simone Mastrogiovanni and Andrew Matas and Maite Mateu-Lucena and F. Matichard and Mariia Matiushechkina and Nergis Mavalvala and John J. McCann and R. McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Phoebe McClincy and Scott McCormick and Lee McCuller and Graeme McGhee and Scott C. McGuire and Connor McIsaac and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and T G McRae and Sean T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Moritz Mehmet and Ajit Kumar Mehta and Andrew Melatos and Denyz Melchor and Greg Mendell and A Men{\'e}ndez-V{\'a}zquez and Carmen S. Menoni and Richard A J Mercer and Lorenzo Mereni and Kara Merfeld and E. L. Merilh and James D. Merritt and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and Patrick M. Meyers and Fabian Meylahn and A. Mhaske and Agnese Miani and Haixing Miao and I. Michaloliakos and C. Michel and Yuta Michimura and Hannah Middleton and Leopoldo Milano and A. L. Miller and Margaret Millhouse and J. C. Mills and Edoardo Milotti and M. C. Milovich-Goff and Olivier Minazzoli and Yury Minenkov and Norikatsu Mio and Lluis M. Mir and Alec S Mishkin and Chandra Kant Mishra and Tanmaya Mishra and Timesh Mistry and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Osamu Miyakawa and Akinobu Miyamoto and Yuki Miyazaki and Kouseki Miyo and Shinji Miyoki and Geoffrey Mo and Kentaro Mogushi and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and Siddharth R. Mohite and Ignacio Molina and M. Molina-Ruiz and Myriam Mondin and M. Montani and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Filip Morawski and Anupreeta More and C. Moreno and Gerardo Moreno and Y. Mori and Soichiro Morisaki and Yuji Moriwaki and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and Simone Mozzon and Federico Muciaccia and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Soma Mukherjee and Subroto Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and E. A. M. Muniz and P. G. Murray and Riccardo Musenich and Severin Nadji and Koji Nagano and Shigeo Nagano and Alessandro Nagar and K Nakamura and Hiroyuki Nakano and Masaya Nakano and Rika Nakashima and Y. Nakayama and Ilaria Nardecchia and Tatsuya Narikawa and L. Naticchioni and B. K. Nayak and Rabindranath Nayak and Rumi Negishi and B. F. Neil and Joshua Neilson and Gijs Nelemans and T. J. N. Nelson and M. Nery and Ansel Neunzert and K. K. Y. Ng and Sebastian W. S. Ng and C. Nguyen and Phong Nguyen and T. T. Nguyen and L. Nguyen Quynh and Wei-Tou Ni and S. A. Nichols and Atsushi J. Nishizawa and Samaya M. Nissanke and F. Nocera and Minkyun Noh and Manuel Norman and Christopher E. North and S. Nozaki and Laura Nuttall and Jason Oberling and Brendan O'Brien and Yoshiyuki Obuchi and Joseph O'Dell and W. Ogaki and Gor Oganesyan and J J Oh and K. Oh and S. H. Oh and Masatake Ohashi and Naoko Ohishi and Mizuha Ohkawa and Frank Ohme and H. Ohta and M. A. Okada and Yukio Okutani and Koki Okutomi and C. Olivetto and Ken-ichi Oohara and Ching Pin Ooi and Richard J. Oram and Brian O'reilly and R. G. Ormiston and N. D. Ormsby and Luis F. Ortega and Richard O’Shaughnessy and {\'E}amonn O’Shea and Shoichi Oshino and Serguei Ossokine and Charles Osthelder and S. Otabe and D. J. Ottaway and Harry Overmier and Alexander Pace and Giulia Pagano and Michael A. Page and G. Pagliaroli and Archana Pai and Sanjay A. Pai and Jordan Palamos and O. V. Palashov and Cristiano Palomba and K. Pan and Prafulla K. Panda and Hao Pang and Peter T. H. Pang and Chris Pankow and Francesco Pannarale and Bhasker Pant and Federico Paoletti and Angela Delli Paoli and Achille Paolone and Alessandro Parisi and J. Park and W. Parker and Daniela Pascucci and A. Pasqualetti and R. Passaquieti and D. Passuello and M. Patel and Barbara Patricelli and Ethan Payne and T. C. Pechsiri and M. Pedraza and Matteo Pegoraro and Arnaud Pele and Fabi{\'a}n Erasmo Pe{\~n}a Arellano and Stephen Penn and Albino Perego and A. Pereira and T. Pereira and Carlos J. Perez and C. P'erigois and Antonio Perreca and St{\'e}phane Perri{\`e}s and Jeff Petermann and Danny Petterson and Harald P. Pfeiffer and K. A. Pham and Khun Sang Phukon and Ornella Juliana Piccinni and Mikhael Pichot and M. Piendibene and Francesco Piergiovanni and Lorenzo Pierini and Vincenzo Pierro and Gabriel Pillant and Federico Pilo and L. Pinard and I. M. Pinto and Brandon Piotrzkowski and Krzysztof Piotrzkowski and Marc Pirello and Matthew Pitkin and Ernesto Placidi and Wolfango Plastino and Christian M. Pluchar and R. Poggiani and E Polini and D. Y. T. Pong and S. Ponrathnam and P. Popolizio and Edward K. Porter and Jade Powell and M. Pracchia and Thierry Pradier and Atul Kumar Prajapati and Kiran Prasai and Rammohan Prasanna and Geraint Pratten and Tanner Prestegard and M. Principe and G A Prodi and L G Prokhorov and Paolo Prosposito and L. Prudenzi and Anna Puecher and M. Punturo and Francesco Puosi and P. Puppo and Michael Purrer and H. Qi and Volker Quetschke and Pedro Jesus Quinonez and Ryan Quitzow-James and F. J. Raab and Geert Raaijmakers and Hugh Radkins and N. Radulesco and P{\'e}ter Raffai and S. X. Rail and Sendhil Raja and C. Rajan and K. E. Ramirez and Teresita Ramirez and Antoni Ramos-Buades and Javed Rana and P. Rapagnani and Umakant D Rapol and B. Ratto and Anupam Ray and V Raymond and Nayyer Raza and Massimiliano Razzano and Jocelyn Read and Lowri Ann Rees and Tania Regimbau and Luca Rei and Stuart Reid and D. H. Reitze and Phil Relton and Piero Rettegno and F. Ricci and C. J. Richardson and Jonathan W. Richardson and L. Richardson and Paul M. Ricker and Gunnar Riemenschneider and Keith Riles and M Rizzo and N. A. Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and J. A. Rocha and S. Rodriguez and R. D. Rodriguez-Soto and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and Margherita Romanelli and Rocco Romano and Chandra Romel and Alba Romero and Isobel M. Romero-Shaw and J. H. Romie and Caitlin A. Rose and D. Rosi'nska and Shawn Rosofsky and Michael P Ross and Sheila Rowan and Samuel Rowlinson and Santosh Kumar Roy and Soumen Kumar Roy and Davide Rozza and P. Ruggi and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Jam Sadiq and Norichika Sago and S. Saito and Y. Saito and Kazumitsu Sakai and Y. Sakai and Mairi Sakellariadou and Yuuji Sakuno and Om Sharan Salafia and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Francesco Salemi and Anuradha Samajdar and E. J. Sanchez and J. M. Hern{\'a}ndez S{\'a}nchez and L. E. Sanchez and Nicolas Sanchis-Gual and Joyce Sanders and Andreu Sanuy and T. R. Saravanan and Nikhil Sarin and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and H. Satari and B. S. Sathyaprakash and S. Sato and T. Sato and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and V. Savant and T. Sawada and Disha Sawant and H. L. Sawant and Selim M. Sayah and Dean M. Schaetzl and Mark A. Scheel and Jacob Scheuer and Alexander Schindler-Tyka and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and M. Schneewind and Robert M. S. Schofield and A. Schonbeck and Brian Wm. Schulte and B. F. Schutz and Eyal Schwartz and J. Scott and Susan M. Scott and M. Seglar-Arroyo and Edward Seidel and Takanori Sekiguchi and Yuichiro Sekiguchi and Danny Sellers and Anand S. Sengupta and Noah Sennett and Daniel Sentenac and Eu-gene Seo and Valeria Sequino and A. M. Sergeev and Yoshinta Setyawati and Thomas Shaffer and M. Selim Shahriar and Bilal Shams and Lijing Shao and Sadra Sharifi and A. S. Sharma and P. Sharma and Peter Shawhan and N. Shcheblanov and H. Shen and Shota Shibagaki and Minori Shikauchi and R. Shimizu and T. Shimoda and K. Shimode and R. Shink and Hisa-aki Shinkai and T. Shishido and Ayaka Shoda and D. H. Shoemaker and Deirdre M. Shoemaker and Kumar Shukla and S. Shyamsundar and Magdalena Sieniawska and Daniel Sigg and Leo P. Singer and D. J. Singh and N. Singh and Ayatri Singha and A. M. Sintes and Valeria Sipala and Vasileios Skliris and B J J Slagmolen and Teresa Slaven-Blair and J. Smetana and J. R. Smith and R Smith and Surendra Nadh Somala and Kentaro Somiya and E J Son and Kanchan Soni and Siddharth Soni and Borja Sorazu and Viola Sordini and Fiodor Sorrentino and N. Sorrentino and Hajime Sotani and R. Soulard and Tarun Souradeep and Eric Sowell and V. Spagnuolo and A P Spencer and Mario Spera and Anoop Kumar Srivastava and Varun Srivastava and Kai Staats and Cosmin Stachie and Dani{\`e}le Steer and Jessica Steinlechner and Sebastian Steinlechner and D. J. Stops and Simon Stevenson and Madeline Stover and Kenneth Strain and L C Strang and Giulia Stratta and Amber Strunk and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and J. Sudbeck and S. Sudhagar and Vivishek Sudhir and R. Sugimoto and H. G. Suh and T. Z. Summerscales and H. Sun and L. Sun and Sooraj Sunil and A. Sur and Joshua Suresh and P. Sutton and Takamasa Suzuki and Toshikazu Suzuki and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepa'nczyk and Paweł Szewczyk and Matteo Tacca and Hideyuki Tagoshi and Simon C. Tait and H. Takahashi and Ryosuke Takahashi and Akiteru Takamori and Satoru Takano and Hiroki Takeda and Mitsumasa Takeda and Colm Talbot and H. Tanaka and Kazuyuki Tanaka and Kenta Tanaka and Taiki Tanaka and Takahiro Tanaka and Andres Jorge Tanasijczuk and S Tanioka and David B. Tanner and Duo Tao and A. Tapia and E. N. Tapia San Mart'in and Jay D. Tasson and Souichi Telada and Rodrigo Tenorio and Lukas Terkowski and Manufacturing Test and Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam and M. Thomas and Pieter Thomas and J. E. Thompson and S. R. Thondapu and Keith A. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Shubhanshu Tiwari and Srishti Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and Karl Toland and Arthur Tolley and Takayuki Tomaru and Y. Tomigami and Tomonobu Tomura and Mauro Tonelli and Alejandro Torres-Forn'e and C. I. Torrie and I. 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Wei and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Claudia M. Weller and Felix Wellmann and Longping Wen and Peter Wessels and Jonathan Westhouse and Karl Wette and James Whelan and D. D. White and B. F. Whiting and Chris Whittle and Dennis Wilken and D. Williams and M J Williams and Andrew R. Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and D. J. Wilson and Walter Winkler and C. C. Wipf and Tomasz Wlodarczyk and Graham Woan and J. Woehler and J. K. Wofford and Isaac C. F. Wong and C. Wu and D. S. Wu and H. Wu and S. Wu and Daniel Wysocki and L Xiao and W-R. Xu and T. Yamada and H. Yamamoto and Kazuhiro Yamamoto and Kohei Yamamoto and T. Yamamoto and Kinuyo Yamashita and Rina Yamazaki and F. W. Yang and L. Yang and Yang Yang and Yi Yang and Z. Yang and Ming Yap and D. W. Yeeles and A. B. Yelikar and Ming Ying and K. Yokogawa and J. Yokoyama and Takaaki Yokozawa and Andre S. Yoon and Takashi Yoshioka and Hang Yu and Haocun Yu and Hirotaka Yuzurihara and A. K. Zadro.zny and Michele Zanolin and Francesco Zappa and Simon Zeidler and T. I. Zelenova and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and Ming-Sheng Zhan and H. Zhang and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and R. Zhang and T. X. Zhang and C Zhao and G. Zhao and Yue Zhao and Yuhang Zhao and Z. Zhou and X J Zhu and Zhigang Zhu and Aaron Zimmerman and Yosef Zlochower and M. E. Zucker and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
We report the observation of gravitational waves from two compact binary coalescences in LIGO’s and Virgo’s third observing run with properties consistent with neutron star–black hole (NSBH) binaries. The two events are named GW200105_162426 and GW200115_042309, abbreviated as GW200105 and GW200115; the first was observed by LIGO Livingston and Virgo and the second by all three LIGO–Virgo detectors. The source of GW200105 has component masses 8.9−1.5+1.2 and 1.9−0.2+0.3M⊙ , whereas the source… 
Population Properties of Gravitational-wave Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers
Over the course of the third observing run of the LIGO–Virgo–KAGRA Collaboration, several gravitational-wave (GW) neutron star–black hole (NSBH) candidates have been announced. By assuming that these
On the Angular Momentum Transport Efficiency within the Star Constrained from Gravitational-wave Observations
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration (LIGO/Virgo) have recently reported in GWTC-2.1 eight additional candidate events with a probability of astrophysical origin greater than 0.5
No Detectable Kilonova Counterpart is Expected for O3 Neutron Star–Black Hole Candidates
We analyze the tidal disruption probability of potential neutron star–black hole (NSBH) merger gravitational-wave (GW) events, including GW190426_152155, GW190814, GW200105_162426, and
Parameter estimation with gravitational waves
The new era of gravitational wave astronomy truly began on September 14, 2015 with the detection of GW150914, the sensational first direct observation of gravitational waves from the inspiral and
Neutron Star–Neutron Star and Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers: Multiband Observations and Early Warnings
The detections of gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star systems and neutron star–black hole systems provide new insights into dense matter properties in extreme conditions and associated
Black-hole–Neutron-star Mergers Are Unlikely Multimessenger Sources
  • G. Fragione
  • Physics
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • 2021
The promise by the LIGO/Virgo/Kagra (LVK) collaboration to detect black-hole–neutron-star (BH–NS) mergers via gravitational wave (GW) emission has recently been fulfilled with the detection of
Constraints on the Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Neutron-star–Black-hole Merger GW200115
We report the results of our follow-up campaign for the neutron-star—black-hole (NSBH) merger GW200115 detected during the O3 run of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. We obtained
Broad search for gravitational waves from subsolar-mass binaries through LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run
We present a search for gravitational waves from the coalescence of binaries which contain at least one subsolar mass component using data from the LIGO and Virgo observatories through the completion
A Neutron Star Is Born
A neutron star was first detected as a pulsar in 1967. It is one of the most mysterious compact objects in the universe, with a radius of the order of 10 km and masses that can reach two solar
A Channel to Form Fast-spinning Black Hole–Neutron Star Binary Mergers as Multimessenger Sources
After the successful detection of a gravitational-wave (GW) signal and its associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts from GW170817, neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers have been highly expected


Modeling the gravitational wave signature of neutron star black hole coalescences
Accurate gravitational-wave (GW) signal models exist for black hole binary (BBH) and neutron-star binary (BNS) systems, which are consistent with all of the published GW observations to date.
A Gravitational-wave Measurement of the Hubble Constant Following the Second Observing Run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo
This paper presents the gravitational-wave measurement of the Hubble constant (H 0) using the detections from the first and second observing runs of the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector network. The
Use of gravitational waves to probe the formation channels of compact binaries
With the discovery of the binary black hole coalescences GW150914 and GW151226, the era of gravitational-wave astrophysics has started. Gravitational-wave signals emitted by compact binary
Heavy Double Neutron Stars: Birth, Midlife, and Death
Radio pulsar observations probe the lives of Galactic double neutron star (DNS) systems while gravitational waves enable us to study extragalactic DNS in their final moments. By combining
Does Matter Matter? Using the Mass Distribution to Distinguish Neutron Stars and Black Holes
Gravitational-wave detectors have opened a new window through which we can observe black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs). Analyzing the 11 detections from LIGO/Virgo’s first gravitational-wave
GW170817 and GW190814: Tension on the Maximum Mass
The detection of the binary events GW170817 and GW190814 has provided invaluable constraints on the maximum mass of nonrotating configurations of neutron stars, M TOV. However, the large differences
Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: a Bayesian analysis of neutron star - black hole binary observations
The pioneering discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) by Advanced LIGO has ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW
Discriminating between Neutron Stars and Black Holes with Imperfect Knowledge of the Maximum Neutron Star Mass
Although gravitational-wave signals from exceptional low-mass compact binary coalescences, like GW170817, may carry matter signatures that differentiate the source from a binary black hole system,
Parameter estimation for heavy binary-black holes with networks of second-generation gravitational-wave detectors
The era of gravitational-wave astronomy started with the discovery of the binary black hole coalescences (BBH) GW150914 and GW151226 by the LIGO instruments. These systems allowed for the first
On the Rate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers from Globular Clusters
The first detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS) merger, GW170817, and the increasing number of observations of short gamma-ray bursts have greatly motivated