Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor

@article{Anderson1995ObservationOB,
  title={Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor},
  author={M. H. Anderson and Jason Ensher and Michael R. Matthews and Carl E. Wieman and Eric Allin Cornell},
  journal={Science},
  year={1995},
  volume={269},
  pages={198 - 201}
}
A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled. The condensate fraction first appeared near a temperature of 170 nanokelvin and a number density of 2.5 x 1012 per cubic centimeter and could be preserved for more than 15 seconds. Three primary signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation were seen. (i) On top of a broad thermal velocity distribution, a narrow peak appeared that was centered at zero velocity. (ii… 
Bose-Einstein condensates—a new form of quantum matter
We review the recent achievements in observing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in magnetically-trapped gases, and summarize our own studies of BEC in sodium. Thermal sodium atoms were optically
Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic hydrogen
Abstract The addition of atomic hydrogen to the set of gases in which Bose–Einstein condensation can be observed expands the range of parameters over which this remarkable phenomenon can be studied.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atomic Hydrogen
The recent creation of a Bose–Einstein condensate of atomic hydrogen has added a new system to this exciting field. The differences between hydrogen and the alkali metal atoms require other
Buffer-gas cooled Bose-Einstein condensate.
We report the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using buffer-gas cooling, the first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation using a broadly general method which relies neither on laser cooling
Evidence for a Bose-Einstein Condensate in Dilute Rb Gas by Absorption Image in a Quadrupole and Ioffe Configuration Trap
We report the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in dilute rubidium gas. The BEC was achieved in a quadrupole and Ioffe configuration trap. The number of condensed atoms is around 4×104
Characterizing the coherence of Bose-Einstein condensates and atom lasers
For a dilute, interacting Bose gas of magnetically-trapped atoms at temperatures below the critical temperature T0 for Bose-Einstein condensation, we determine the second-order coherence function
Production of rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole trap
We have experimentally produced rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole (OPQ) trap. A far blue-detuned focused laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm is plugged
Large atom number Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium.
TLDR
The setup to create a large Bose-Einstein condensate containing more than 120 x 10(6) atoms is described andspin polarizing in a high magnetic field results in an increase in the transfer efficiency by a factor of 2 compared to experiments without spin polarizing.
Nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
For sufficiently low temperatures, a Bose gas experiences a transition into a Bose-Einstein condensate, characterized by a macroscopic occupation of the ground state of the system. The development of
Bose-Einstein condensation in an ultra-hot gas of pumped magnons.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that external pumping can create remarkably high effective temperatures in a narrow spectral region of the lowest energy states in a magnon gas, resulting in strikingly unexpected transitional dynamics of Bose-Einstein magnon condensate.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms
TLDR
The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of ~2µK.
Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap.
TLDR
The observation of shape oscillations of a trapped Bose condensate, modes analogous to phonons in homogeneous systems are reported on.
Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium.
TLDR
In all calculated elastic and inelastic two-body rates, a pronounced resonance structure is found, which can be understood in terms of the interplay between the singlet-triplet interaction and the hyperfine, Zeeman, and magnetic dipole interactions.
Evaporative cooling of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen.
TLDR
A gas hydrogen atoms, confined in a static magnetic trap, has been evaporatively cooled to temperatures of a few millikelvin and further cooling to 1 mK (inferred from the model) has been achieved.
Behavior of atoms in a compressed magneto-optical trap
We investigate the behavior of a cloud of atoms in a magneto-optical trap, which—after collection—is compressed when the field gradients of the trap magnetic field are increased. We measure sizes and
Behavior of neutral atoms in a spontaneous force trap
A classical collective behavior is observed in the spatial distributions of a cloud of optically trapped neutral atoms. They include extended uniform-density ellipsoids, rings of atoms around a small
Quantum field theory of atoms interacting with photons. II. Scattering of short laser pulses from trapped bosonic atoms.
  • You, Lewenstein, Cooper
  • Physics, Medicine
    Physical review. A, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
  • 1995
TLDR
A method for probing a system of cold bosonic atoms in a trap using intense short laser pulses to account for the atom-atom interactions and quantum statistics of the atoms explicitly effect the spectrum as well as the squeezing properties of the scattered light.
Bose-Einstein condensation in an external potential.
TLDR
Tests for the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation, condensate fraction, and heat capacity of a gas of Bose particles that are confined by a generic power-law potential trap find all three quantities to vary markedly with the shape of the potential.
High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap.
A new magneto-optical trap is demonstrated which confines atoms predominantly in a «dark» hyperfine level, that does not interact with the trapping light. This leads to much higher atomic densities
Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms.
TLDR
Rf induced evaporation was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude and the elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the minus-1 hyperfine state was determined to be 6 times 10 cm2, which implies a positive value of the scattering length.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...