Obligate and facultative migration in birds: ecological aspects

  • Ian Newton
  • Published 2011 in Journal of Ornithology


This paper is concerned mainly with the differences between obligate and facultative migration in birds. Obligate migration is considered “hard-wired”, in that the bird seems pre-programmed to leave its breeding area at a certain time each year, and to return at another time. Timing, directions and distances are relatively constant from year to year. This… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10336-011-0765-3


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@article{Newton2011ObligateAF, title={Obligate and facultative migration in birds: ecological aspects}, author={Ian Newton}, journal={Journal of Ornithology}, year={2011}, volume={153}, pages={171-180} }