Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women's Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks

  title={Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women's Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks},
  author={Barbara L. Fredrickson and Tom Roberts},
  journal={Psychology of Women Quarterly},
  pages={173 - 206}
This article offers objectification theory as a framework for understanding the experiential consequences of being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body. Objectification theory posits that girls and women are typically acculturated to internalize an observer's perspective as a primary view of their physical selves. This perspective on self can lead to habitual body monitoring, which, in turn, can increase women's opportunities for shame and anxiety, reduce opportunities… 
The roles of dispositional flow, dispositional mindfulness, and self-compassion in the Objectification Theory Framework
Women are at greater risk than men for experiencing eating disorders, depression, and sexual dysfunction (American Psychological Association, 2007; Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Objectification
Women and the Experience of Serious Mental Illness and Sexual Objectification: Multicultural Feminist Theoretical Frameworks and Therapy Recommendations
As Objectification Theory (Frederickson & Roberts, 1997) has advanced, the implications of the experience of sexual objectification of women have increasingly been identified. Objectification Theory
Object Lessons: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Objectified Body Consciousness in Women
Theorists have increasingly emphasized the importance of the sociocultural context in the development of women's body experience. As a result, mental health professionals working with individuals
Empowerment and Powerlessness: A Closer Look at the Relationship Between Feminism, Body Image and Eating Disturbance
Objectification Theory (Frederickson & Roberts, 1997) states that women’s bodies are viewed as objects to be evaluated and this societal objectification may lead to self-objectification when women
Resisting oppression: body psychotherapy techniques to empower women
Abstract Many women regularly experience sexist events and are the targets of sexual objectification. Objectification theory claims that repeated exposure to sexual objectification is likely to
The Role of Self-objectification in Women’s Depression: A Test of Objectification Theory
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21:173–206, 1997) postulates that sexual objectification of women and girls in US culture contributes to women’s mental
Self-Objectification as a Dissociative Experience: Making the Connection between Media Internalization and Self-Harm
Society and the media put great emphasis on the female body as women are continuously objectified and reduced to mere objects to be looked at. Objectification may lead to the internalization of an
An examination of body objectification and social physique anxiety in women and men: The priming effects of anticipating a brief social interaction
Body objectification occurs when individuals adopt an observer’s view of their body and treat their body as an object. This process has been linked to appearance anxiety and shame, decreased
Toward a Relational Understanding of Objectification, Body Image, and Preventive Sexual Health
There is a wealth of empirical support for objectification theory. Researchers have suggested an extension to the theory that includes risky sexual behaviors as a consequence of body shame. However,
Examining Objectification Theory
Many theorists have suggested that living in a culture in which women's bodies are sexually objectified socializes girls and women to treat themselves as objects. This study developed a theory-based


The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale
Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N = 502) and middle-aged
Silencing The Self
Silencing the self theory (Jack, 1991) holds that women's depression is closely related to experiences in close relationships, especially if women conform with societal norms for feminine
Finished At 40: Women's Development within the Patriarchy
Psychological theories of women's lives in middle age and beyond are restricted, negative, and scarce. An overview of women's adult development in textbooks and the professional literature indicates
Gender Role Stereotypes, Expectancy Effects, and Parents' Socialization of Gender Differences
Gender segregation continues to exist in many activity and occupational domains. This article uses the expectancy effect perspective to analyze the role parents may play in influencing their children
Sexuality, Schooling, and Adolescent Females: The Missing Discourse of Desire.
Michelle Fine argues that the anti-sex rhetoric surrounding sex education and school-based health clinics does little to enhance the development of sexual responsibility and subjectivity in
Shame: The Exposed Self
Shame, the quintessential human emotion, received little attention during the years in which the central forces believed to be motivating us were identified as primitive instincts like sex and
The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction
Emily Martin has produced a powerful study of the dialectic between medical metaphors for women's reproductive processes and women's own views of those processes, exposing hidden cultural assumptions about the nature of reality.
Engendered Lives: A New Psychology Of Women's Experience
Making meaning gender embodied Oedipus and Antigone revisited - the family drama identity embodied relationships - his and hers limits and boundaries self and esteem order out of disorder -
Sex differences in the self-concept in adolescence
This paper examines an aspect of the self-concept — salience of the self or self-consciousness — which has generally been neglected in the past. In an empirical study of nearly 2,000 children and
Gender differences in coping with depression across the lifespan
Women are twice as likely as men to report high levels of depressive symptoms and to be diagnosed with a unipolar depressive disorder. I propose that throughout adolescence and adulthood women tend