Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea.

@article{Diepvens2007ObesityAT,
  title={Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea.},
  author={Kristel Diepvens and Klaas R. Westerterp and Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology},
  year={2007},
  volume={292 1},
  pages={
          R77-85
        }
}
The global prevalence of obesity has increased considerably in the last decade. Tools for obesity management, including caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin, and green tea have been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance, since they may increase energy expenditure and have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is present during weight loss. A combination of caffeine and ephedrine has shown to be effective in long-term weight management, likely due to… 
Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation
Capsaicinoids: a spicy solution to the management of obesity?
TLDR
Although capsaicin intake appears to be a safe practice, further studies will be needed to ascertain the safety of regular long-term consumption, observations reinforce the idea that consumption of Capsaicinoids and capsinoids may be helpful to facilitate obesity management.
No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men
TLDR
The highest tolerable dose of mustard used did not elicit a relevant thermogenic response in humans and no differences in substrate oxidation, core temperature, cold and hunger scores, or plasma parameters were found, nor was the energy intake at the end of the experiment different between the 3 conditions.
A minireview of effects of green tea on energy expenditure
TLDR
Mechanisms of action and effects of caffeine and catechin, which are found in green tea composition, on energy expenditure are assessed.
The effect of caffeine on energy balance
TLDR
Current knowledge on the thermogenic properties of caffeine, and its effects on appetite and EI in relation to energy balance and body weight regulation are reviewed.
The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake
TLDR
Only caffeine was thermogenic in the given dose and caused no haemodynamic side effects, and the sample size was probably too small to detect any appetite suppressant properties of the treatments.
Arousal-Inducing Effect of Garcinia cambogia Peel Extract in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep Test and Electroencephalographic Analysis
TLDR
The findings suggest that GC might be a promising natural stimulant with no side effects and it is preferential to take GC as a dietary supplement for weight loss during the daytime to avoid sleep disturbances owing to its arousal-inducing effect.
Effect of Green Tea on Obesity - A Survey
TLDR
This survey will analyse the effects of green tea on obese people as green tea has been proposed as strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance.
The putative effects of green tea on body fat: an evaluation of the evidence and a review of the potential mechanisms
TLDR
An evaluation of the available evidence supports a role of green tea in weight loss; however the extent of the effects obtained is still subject to debate, and requires more objective quantification in future research.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 156 REFERENCES
The thermogenic properties of ephedrine/methylxanthine mixtures: animal studies.
TLDR
The results indicate that dietary methylxanthines like caffeine and theophylline, although alone have little effect on energy balance, can nevertheless markedly potentiate the thermogenic anti-obesity effect of ephedrine and normalize the body composition of the obese to the lean levels.
Thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man.
  • A. Astrup, S. Toubro
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
  • 1993
TLDR
The hemodynamic and side effects to E+C are transient during chronic treatment, while the effect on energy expenditure persists, and the compound also possesses repartitioning properties, which may be useful in the treatment of obesity.
The thermogenic properties of ephedrine/methylxanthine mixtures: human studies.
TLDR
It is indicated that relatively mild doses of dietary methylxanthines in combination with ephedrine can raise daily energy expenditure of those predisposed to obesity, mainly by correcting their defective thermogenic response to food.
Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women.
The magnitude of coffee-induced thermogenesis and the influence of coffee ingestion on substrate oxidation were investigated in 10 lean and 10 obese women, over two 24-h periods in a respiratory
Thermogenic drugs as a strategy for treatment of obesity
TLDR
There is accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that a low-energy-output phenotype is at high risk of weight gain and obesity, irrespective of whether this is owing to a low resting metabolic rate and/or physical inactivity, and pharmacologic stimulation of energy expenditure as a tool to improve the results of obesity management.
Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity
TLDR
It is proposed that the green tea extract is effective in stimulating thermogenesis by relieving inhibition at different control points along the NA–cAMP axis, and a synergistic interaction between catechin-polyphenols and caffeine to augment and prolong sympathetic stimulation of thermogenesis could be of value in assisting the management of obesity.
The acute and chronic effects of ephedrine/caffeine mixtures on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism in humans.
  • S. Toubro, A. Astrup, L. Breum, F. Quaade
  • Medicine
    International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
  • 1993
TLDR
It is concluded that the ephedrine/caffeine combination is safe and effective in long-term treatment in improving and maintaining weight loss and no clinically relevant withdrawal symptoms have been observed.
Ephedrine, xanthines and prostaglandin-inhibitors: actions and interactions in the stimulation of thermogenesis.
  • A. Dulloo
  • Biology
    International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
  • 1993
TLDR
Future research aimed at clarifying the types and subtypes of these negative modulators of sympathomimetic-induced thermogenesis and their targeting by more selective antagonists would no doubt be pivotal in providing the safe drug combination with the necessary thermogenic properties to assist the management of obesity.
Caffeine: its effect on catecholamines and metabolism in lean and obese humans.
TLDR
Monitoring plasma substrate concentrations showed that the change in oxygen uptake corresponded to changes in plasma free fatty acids, so that in adults the metabolic effects of caffeine seem to be mediated by increases in adipocyte lipolysis, which seems to be mainly independent of the adrenergic system.
...
...