author={Elon Kohlberg and Jean-François Mertens},
A basic problem in the theory of noncooperative games is the following: which Nash equilibria are strategically stable, i.e. self-enforcing, and does every game have a strategically stable equilibrium? We list three conditions which seem necessary for strategic stabilitybackwards induction, iterated dominance, and invariance-and define a set-valued equilibrium concept that satisfies all three of them. We prove that every game has at least one such equilibrium set. Also, we show that the… Expand
Sufficient conditions for stable equilibria
A refinement of the set of Nash equilibria that satisfies two assumptions is shown to select a subset that is stable in the sense defined by Kohlberg and Mertens. One assumption requires that aExpand
Sufficient conditions for stable equilibria
A refinement of the set of Nash equilibria that satisfies two assumptions is shown to select a subset that is stable in the sense defined by Kohlberg and Mertens. One assumption requires that aExpand
The structure of non-zero-sum stochastic games
  • R. Simon
  • Mathematics, Computer Science
  • Adv. Appl. Math.
  • 2007
The proof reveals that more general proofs for the existence of @e-equilibria in stochastic games must involve the topological structure of how the equilibria of one-stage games are related to changes in the payoffs. Expand
Continuity and Equilibrium Stability
This paper discusses the problem of stability of equilibrium points in normal form games in the tremling-hand framework. An equilibrium point is called perffect if it is stable against at least oneExpand
Robust and non-robust equilibria in a strategic market game ⁄
We illustrate an approach to restricting the set of equilibria in a strategic market game, based on the idea that equilibria should be robust to arbitrarily small transaction costs. Speciflcally, weExpand
An Analysis of Stability Sets in pure Coordination Games
We calculate the Lebesgue–measures of the stability sets of Nash-equilibria in pure coordination games. The results allow us to observe that the ordering induced by the Lebesgue–measure of stabilityExpand
Essential equilibria of large generalized games
We characterize the essential stability of games with a continuum of players, where strategy profiles may affect objective functions and admissible strategies. Taking into account the perturbationsExpand
Equilibria in Non-cooperative Games I: Perturbations Based Refinements of Nash Equilibrium
The concept of Nash equilibrium is widely used to analyze non-cooperative games. However, one of the problems with that concept is that many games have multiple equilibria. Recent work hasExpand
Justification of Stable Equilibria
Two assumptions are used to justify selection of equilibria in stable sets. One assumption requires that a selected set is invariant to addition of redundant strategies. The other is a strong versionExpand
The structure of Nash equilibria in Poisson games
It is proved that the number of Nash equilibria in Poisson voting games under plurality, negative plurality, and (when there are at most three candidates) approval rule is generically finite. Expand


Persistent equilibria in strategic games
A perfect equilibrium [Selten] can be viewed as a Nash equilibrium with certain properties of local stability. Simple examples show that a stronger notion of local stability is needed to eliminateExpand
we would call cooperative. This theory is based on an analysis of the interrelationships of the various coalitions which can be formed by the players of the game. Our theory, in contradistinction, isExpand
Refinements of the Nash equilibrium concept
Selten's concept of perfect equilibrium for normal form games is reviewed, and a new concept of proper equilibrium is defined. It is shown that the proper equilibria form a nonempty subset of theExpand
An approach to communication equilibria
The Nash equilibrium concept may be extended gradually when the rules of the game are interpreted in a wider and wider sense, so as to allow preplay or even intraplay communication. A well-knownExpand
Reexamination of the perfectness concept for equilibrium points in extensive games
The concept of a perfect equilibrium point has been introduced in order to exclude the possibility that disequilibrium behavior is prescribed on unreached subgames. (Selten 1965 and 1973).Expand
A relation between perfect equilibria in extensive form games and proper equilibria in normal form games
The concept of quasi-perfect equilibria for games in extensive form is introduced. It is shown that a proper equilibrium of a normal form game induces a quasi-perfect equilibrium in every extensiveExpand
The logic of asymmetric contests
Abstract A theoretical analysis is made of the evolution of behavioural strategies in contest situations. It is assumed that behaviour will evolve so as to maximize individual fitness. If so, aExpand
Behavior Strategies in Finite Games
Abstract : The relation between behavior strategies and mixed strategies is developed. Those game structures solvable by behavior strategies are characterized.
Anperson non一cooperative game 15 completely determined by itspay netions if its sets of strategies are fixed once for all.There-fo it 15 elear that the existenee and the eharacters of theExpand