author={Thomas E. Graedel},
  journal={Annual Review of Energy and The Environment},
  • T. Graedel
  • Published 1 November 1996
  • Environmental Science
  • Annual Review of Energy and The Environment
▪ Abstract The term industrial ecology was conceived to suggest that industrial activity can be thought of and approached in much the same way as a biological ecosystem and that in its ideal form it would strive toward integration of activities and cyclization of resources, as do natural ecosystems. Beyond this attractive but fuzzy notion, little has been done to explore the usefulness of the analogy. This paper examines the structural framework of biological ecology and the tools used for its… 

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