author={Thomas E. Graedel},
  journal={Annual Review of Energy and The Environment},
  • T. Graedel
  • Published 1996
  • Engineering
  • Annual Review of Energy and The Environment
▪ Abstract The term industrial ecology was conceived to suggest that industrial activity can be thought of and approached in much the same way as a biological ecosystem and that in its ideal form it would strive toward integration of activities and cyclization of resources, as do natural ecosystems. Beyond this attractive but fuzzy notion, little has been done to explore the usefulness of the analogy. This paper examines the structural framework of biological ecology and the tools used for its… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reinterpreting Industrial Ecology
It is proposed that context‐specific observation and analysis of industry are required before theoretical and practical advancement of the field can be achieved, and it is argued that industrial ecology should not be seen as a metaphor for industrial development. Expand
Theory of industrial ecology: the case of the concept of diversity
The Theory of Industrial Ecology (Korhonen, 2004a) classified the properties and characteristics of industrial ecosystems: • the physical flows of matter and energy • the structural andExpand
Industrial ecology: a new perspective on the future of the industrial system.
Industrial ecology emerges at a time when it is becoming increasingly clear that the traditional pollution treatment approach (end-of-pipe) is not only insufficient to solve environmental problems, but also too costly in the long run. Expand
Theory of industrial ecology
The central question of the theory of industrial ecology (IE) is: Whether IE is/will be a form of descriptive or prescriptive science? Some debate the same (more or less) question by asking whetherExpand
Sustainable production, allocation and consumption: creating steady-state economic structures in industrial ecology
of the PhD thesis Industrial Ecology is an application of environmental management transcending the boundary of the individual firm. By comparing industrial systems to natural ecosystems, IndustrialExpand
Ecologically-based approaches to evaluate the sustainability of industrial systems
Industrial ecology, promoted as a discipline of 'sustainability science,' applies ecological concepts to industrial systems to improve their sustainability. Concepts such as diversity, food webs andExpand
Industrial ecology an important work-in-progress
  • J. Ehrenfeld
  • Engineering
  • Proceedings Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing
  • 2001
Industrial ecology was born about a decade ago. Since then it has grown as a field of inquiry and has produced a community of practice in several sectors, including academia, business and government.Expand
Industrial ecology: a framework for sustainable industrial development on small islands
Industrial ecology provides a revolutionary framework for industrial organization in which industry is considered as embedded within the natural environment, not separate from it. It draws uponExpand
Industrial ecosystems? The use of tropes in the literature of industrial ecology and eco-industrial parks
Industrial ecology is often promoted as a practice to close industrial production loops and reduce waste, thereby making better use of resources and preventing the overuse of raw materials.Expand
Modelling industrial ecosystems and the "problem" of evolution
Since the emergence of industrial ecology in the 1950s and its take-off during the 1990s, much progress in theory, policy and practice has been achieved. However, there is still progress to be madeExpand


Industrial ecology: a philosophical introduction.
  • R. Frosch
  • Business, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1992
An industrial ecology system, in addition to minimizing waste production in processes, would maximize the economical use of waste materials and of products at the ends of their lives as inputs to other processes and industries. Expand
Industrial input-output analysis: implications for industrial ecology.
  • F. Duchin
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1992
The major advances that have been made in the last decade in the extension of input-output economics to address increasingly complex questions are described, notably the fully dynamic physical/price/income model and the engineering/input-output data base. Expand
Organisms as ecosystem engineers
The role that many organisms play in the creation, modification and maintenance of habitats does not involve direct trophic interactions between species, but they are nevertheless important and common. Expand
Complex Trophic Interactions in Deserts: An Empirical Critique of Food-Web Theory
  • G. Polis
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
  • 1991
It is argued that most cataloged webs are oversimplified caricatures of actual communities, and patterns from food webs of real communities generally do not support predictions arising from dynamic and graphic models of food-web structure. Expand
The figures reflect the current patterns of exploitation distribution and consumption of a much larger population; there must be limits to growth. Expand
Industrial ecology.
  • C. K. Patel
  • Engineering, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1992
Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potentialExpand
Regions as Social Organisms: The Lamarckian Characteristics of Vidal de la Blache's Regional Geography
Abstract Geographers currently are refocusing attention on the study of localities and regions. The new regional emphasis is based on the perceived need to establish a theoretically sophisticatedExpand
The End of Nature
This is an examination of man's new relationship with nature ranging from consequences of the greenhouse effect, global heating, changing weather patterns, rising sea levels and evaporating rivers toExpand
Scientists of Gaia
Scientists on Gaia, based on an AGU Chapman conference, is a book rich in scientific and philosophical ideas. The science evolves around global biogeochemical cycles that are linked to the livingExpand
Beaver impoundments in temperate forests as sources of atmospheric CO2
Beaver impoundments trap large amounts of organic matter, and remineralization of the organic matter to CO2 could make them a significant source of atmospheric CO2. Measurements in two beaverExpand