Nutritional rickets around the world: an update

  title={Nutritional rickets around the world: an update},
  author={Ana L. Creo and Thomas D Thacher and John M Pettifor and Mark A. Strand and Philip R. Fischer},
  journal={Paediatrics and International Child Health},
  pages={84 - 98}
Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and… 

Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency: consequences and strategies for treatment and prevention

An overview of historical perspective, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of nutritional rickets is provided, and diagnostic approaches and challenges in radiographic diagnosis of rickets are outlined and strategies for prevention and treatment are presented.

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The article presents a clinical case of NR in a girl aged 4 years and 3 months admitted to the authors' hospital with severe deformation of low extremities, found to have vitamin D-deficient state with extremely high alkaline phosphatase, suggestive for massive bone resorption.

Rickets in Children: An Update

The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological, pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of the different forms of rickets, describing the novelties on this “long-lived” disease.

Rickets Due to Severe Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Malaysia

This case highlights the importance of having a high degree of suspicion for vitamin D deficiency and rickets in young children growing up during the COVID-19 pandemic and public health messages on preventing the spread of CO VID-19 should be interlaced with messages addressing the possible effects of the authors' new norms such as inadequate sunlight exposure.

Global consensus on nutritional rickets: Implications for Australia

It is concluded that updated global recommendations for therapy of nutritional rickets complement previously published position statements for Australia and New Zealand and the implementation of public health strategies need to be further explored for Australia.

Risk Factor for Nutritional Rickets among 0-5 Years Children in Bangladesh

Exclusive breastfeeding for >4 months, sunlight exposure <30 minutes/day, dark skin color, number of siblings, urban slum residence, deficit monthly income, and parent’s education are the risk factors for NR in Bangladeshi child.

Nutritional rickets among children admitted with severe pneumonia at Mulago hospital, Uganda: a cross-sectional study

Overall few children with rickets had typical clinical features of rickets on physical examination and clinicians should actively assess children for rickets in this setting and screen for ricks in those children at high risk even without clinical features.

Prevention of rickets and osteomalacia in the UK: political action overdue

The UK government demonstrates incomplete understanding of three facts, and its failure to adjust its prevention programmes to changing demographics is endangering the health and life of UK residents with dark skin, of whom infants are the most vulnerable.



Nutritional rickets around the world: causes and future directions

Rickets exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency, and it is likely that relative deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D interact with genetic and/or environmental factors to stimulate the development of rickets.

Rickets in Denmark.

The geno- and phenotype among Scandinavian patients have not been characterized and the disease in adult patients is not well described, so there are conflicting reports of the benefits of medical treatment throughout childhood, and in addition on gender differences in disease severity.

Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets.

Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents and implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.

Nutritional rickets around the world

  • A. Prentice
  • Medicine
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • 2013

Vitamin D–deficiency rickets among children in Canada

Vitamin D–deficiency rickets is persistent in Canada, particularly among children who reside in the north and among infants with darker skin who are breast-fed without appropriate vitamin D supplementation, which appears to be infants born to mothers with a profound vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective.

The controversies that surround the interpretation of 25OHD, other proposed indices of vitamin D adequacy and dietary reference values for vitamin D, and the emerging evidence that a very low calcium intake may contribute to the etiology of rickets in Africa and Asia are discussed.

Management of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a randomized controlled trial.

The best therapeutic response was seen with a combination of vitamin D and calcium than either of them given alone, and children with rickets had a low serum vitamin D level and a low dietary calcium intake.

Nutritional Rickets among Children in a Sun Rich Country

The most important risk factors were low vitamin D and calcium intakes, lack of exposure to sunlight, prolonged breast feeding without supplementation of vitamin D, and diabetes mellitus.

Pediatric vitamin D and calcium nutrition in developing countries

Further research is needed to elucidate the precise epidemiology of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies in developing countries, to determine the roles of additional pathologic factors contributing to the development and morbidity of rickets, to improve affordable and feasible means of diagnosing rickets in resource-limited areas, to better target at-risk populations for preventive interventions.

Clinical and radiographic improvement of rickets in Bangladeshi children as a result of nutritional advice

Despite the lack of a statistically significant association between radiographic improvement and compliance with nutritional advice, in mild calcium-deficiency active rickets, nutritional advice may be a cost-effective treatment and possibly a valuable long-term solution to the problem.