Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction.

@article{Duan2015NutritionalAR,
  title={Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction.},
  author={Yehui Duan and Fengna Li and Hongnan Liu and Yinghui Li and Yingying Liu and Xiangfeng Kong and Yuzhe Zhang and Dun Deng and Yulong Tang and Zemeng Feng and Guoyao Wu and Yulong Yin},
  journal={Frontiers in bioscience},
  year={2015},
  volume={20},
  pages={
          796-813
        }
}
The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein… Expand
The role of leucine and its metabolites in protein and energy metabolism
TLDR
Both α-KIC and HMB have recently received considerable attention as nutritional supplements used to increase protein synthesis, inhibit protein degradation, and regulate energy homeostasis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models. Expand
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, mitochondrial biogenesis, and skeletal muscle health
TLDR
Dietary supplementation with HMB increases the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), which represents an upstream inducer of genes of mitochondrial metabolism, coordinates the expression of both nuclear- and mitochondrion-encoded genes in mitochondrial biogenesis. Expand
Effects of supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to low-protein diets on expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), play critical roles in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism in addition to their other functions,Expand
Supplementation with α-ketoglutarate to a low-protein diet enhances amino acid synthesis in tissues and improves protein metabolism in the skeletal muscle of growing pigs
TLDR
Results indicated that addition of AKG to a low-protein diet promotes amino acid synthesis in tissues and improves protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. Expand
Free Amino Acid Profile and Expression of Genes Implicated in Protein Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle of Growing Pigs Fed Low-Protein Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acids.
TLDR
Results indicated that maintaining the dietary Leu:Ile:Val ratio within 1.25:0.75 in low-protein diets (17% CP) would facilitate the absorption and utilization of free AA and result in improved protein metabolism and muscle growth. Expand
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs
TLDR
The results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. Expand
β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate, but not α-ketoisocaproate and excess leucine, stimulates skeletal muscle protein metabolism in growing pigs fed low-protein diets
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of leucine (Leu) and its metabolites (α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB)) on muscle protein metabolism in growing pigsExpand
Alteration of muscle fiber characteristics and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis in skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed low-protein diets with varying branched-chain amino acid ratios
TLDR
Low-protein diets supplemented with optimal BCAA ratio induce muscle more oxidative especially in oxido-glycolytic skeletal muscle of growing pigs, likely associated with the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis. Expand
Glucocorticoids retard skeletal muscle development and myoblast protein synthesis through a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-signaling pathway in broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus)
TLDR
The results imply that the mTOR and AMPK pathways are both involved in retarding muscle development and protein synthesis by glucocorticoids, but the m TOR pathway is a critical point linking glucoc Corticoid and protein synthesisation. Expand
Co-dependence of genotype and dietary protein intake to affect expression on amino acid/peptide transporters in porcine skeletal muscle
TLDR
It is indicated that adequate provision of dietary protein plays an important role in regulating profiles of free AA pools and expression of key AA/peptide transporters/transceptors in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. Expand
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