Nutrition for the Brain: Commentary on the article by Isaacs et al. on page 308

  title={Nutrition for the Brain: Commentary on the article by Isaacs et al. on page 308},
  author={Petra S. H{\"u}ppi},
  journal={Pediatric Research},
  • P. Hüppi
  • Published 1 March 2008
  • Medicine
  • Pediatric Research
T he question of whether brain function is entirely genetically determined or may be influenced by the environment or by nutrition has been debated for decades. Several studies have associated breastfeeding with improved intelligence in later life (1–5). Of course many confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, perinatal , and early childhood morbidities will influence both readiness for breastfeeding as well as direct cognitive development. Effects of studies rigorously controlling for… 
Breastfeeding and early brain development: the Generation R study.
Maternal reports of breastfeeding are associated with more mature brain development within the first 2 months of life, and findings pointed to non-specific neural developmental advantage for exclusively breastfed babies.
Nutrient Intake in the First Two Weeks of Life and Brain Growth in Preterm Neonates
In preterm neonates, greater energy and enteral feeding during the first 2 weeks of life predicted more robust brain growth and accelerated WM maturation, suggesting the long-lasting effect of early nutrition on neurodevelopment may be mediated by enhanced brain growth.
Strategies for feeding the preterm infant.
Overfeeding has the definite potential to produce adipose tissue, or obesity, which then leads to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and diabetes, and to date nearly all studies have shown that minimal enteral feeding approaches promote the capacity to feed enterally.
Is it time to stop starving premature infants?
  • J. Neu
  • Medicine
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  • 2009
The two articles in this edition of the Journal of Perinatology aptly augment the burgeoning evidence, which, for some, is intuitively obvious—it's really ok to nourish premature infants.
An Energy-Restricted, Low Glycemic Index Diet with Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome
It was demonstrated, that an energy-restricted, low glycemic index diet with exercise was effective in inducing weight loss and improving Metabolic Syndrome risk factors with a 50% reduction in participants who had the criteria for diagnosis of Metabolic syndrome by week 16.
Very low birth weight preterm infants are at risk for hypoglycemia once on total enteral nutrition
The results indicate that numerous preterm infants experience hypoglycemic episodes once on total enteral nutrition, especially those who are <1000 g at birth and those with a higher carbohydrate intake.
There are limitations to the practice of the recommended preterm nutrition in Nigerian settings, nevertheless the interventions like early commencement of minimal enteral feeds and preference for human breast milk should be practiced optimally.
Preeclampsia alters milk neurotrophins and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
American Pediatric Society Presidential Address 2008: Research in Early Life - Benefit and Promise
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  • Medicine
    Pediatric Research
  • 2009
The president of the American Pediatric Society thank the members of the APS for granting him the privilege to serve as your president this year, a truly wonderful honor that he will cherish forever.


Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism
The finding that breastfeeding and IQ are moderated by a genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the genetic control of fatty acid pathways shows that environmental exposures can be used to uncover novel candidate genes in complex phenotypes and shows that genes may work via the environment to shape the IQ.
Relationship between early diet and subsequent cognitive performance during adolescence.
The possibility that a nutritional stimulus or insult at a critical period of development could have a long-term influence on health, function or achievement is one of uncertainty but one of major
Intrauterine Growth Restriction Affects the Preterm Infant's Hippocampus
It is concluded that hippocampal development in IUGR is altered and might result from a combination of maternal corticosteroid hormone exposure, hypoxemia, and micronutrient deficiency.
Structural and Functional Brain Development After Hydrocortisone Treatment for Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease
The data suggest that perinatal hydrocortisone given at the described dosage has no long-term effects on either neurostructural brain development or neurocognitive outcomes.
and later intelligence quotient Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies
Preterm infants are vulnerable to suboptimal early nutrition in terms of their cognitive performance—notably, language based skills—at 71⁄2-8 years, when cognitive scores are highly predictive of adult ones, and cognitive function, notably in males, may be permanently impaired bySuboptimal neonatal nutrition.
Growth and development in preterm infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized controlled trial.
These results showed a benefit of supplementing formulas for premature infants with AA and DHA from either a fish/fungal or an egg-TG/fish source from the time of first enteral feeding to 12 months' CA.
Leptin regulation of neuronal excitability and cognitive function
  • J. Harvey
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current opinion in pharmacology
  • 2007
Association of Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Insulin-like Growth Factor–Binding Protein-3 With Intelligence Quotient Among 8- to 9-Year-Old Children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
There was no evidence that associations with overall IQ differed between boys and girls, and positive associations were seen with both measures of cognitive function, while the weakening of associations in models controlling for markers of parental socioeconomic position and education could reflect shared influences of parental IGF levels on parents' own educational attainment and their offspring's IGF-I levels.