Nutrition and growth of suckling black bears (Ursus americanus) during their mothers' winter fast

@article{Oftedal1993NutritionAG,
  title={Nutrition and growth of suckling black bears (Ursus americanus) during their mothers' winter fast},
  author={Olav T. Oftedal and Gary L. Alt and E. M. Widdowson and Michael Jakubasz},
  journal={British Journal of Nutrition},
  year={1993},
  volume={70},
  pages={59 - 79}
}
In black bears the last 6–8 weeks of gestation and the first 10–12 weeks of lactation occur in winter while the mother is in a dormant state, and reportedly does not eat, drink, urinate or defaecate. Measurements were made of the body composition and organ weights of cubs, of the composition of milk, and of milk intake (by dilution of 2H2O), in the first 3 months after birth. Additional milk samples were collected until 10 months postpartum. Bear cubs were small at birth, only 3·7 g/kg maternal… 

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Instructions for use Title Change in body weight of mothers and neonates and in milk composition during denning period incaptive Japanese black bears ( Ursus thibetanus japonicus )

Japanese black bears, have been classified as a vulnerable species so that data on reproduction are needed to maintain and/or extend their population. They are known to have a peculiar style of

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