Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?
Ghrelin is a recently discovered stomach hormone whose secretion increases with fasting; the fasting-induced elevation is inhibited by refeeding. The aim of this study was to determine whether all nutrient types (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, fats) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), a secretagogue for intestinal cholecystokinin (CCK), given individually into the stomach or intravenously can inhibit ghrelin secretion in the fasted rat. Intragastric (i.g.) administration of intact protein, a protein digest, SBTI, dextrose, or fat decreased plasma ghrelin levels significantly (p<0.05). All nutrients inhibited ghrelin secretion equally. Fat and dextrose given intravenously (i.v.) also reduced ghrelin secretion. These data demonstrate that nutrients can inhibit ghrelin secretion by both the luminal and systemic routes. Additionally, the findings show that all nutrient types given orally are capable of inhibiting ghrelin secretion, and suggest that intestinal CCK may participate in the inhibition of ghrelin secretion following oral intake of nutrients.