Nutrient Balance Studies in Premature Infants Fed Premature Formula or Fortified Preterm Human Milk

  title={Nutrient Balance Studies in Premature Infants Fed Premature Formula or Fortified Preterm Human Milk},
  author={Richard A. Ehrenkranz and Patricia A Gettner and Catherine M Nelli},
  journal={Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition},
This report compares fat. nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper absorption and retention data from 13 nutritional balance studies performed in 12 appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants with birth weights ≤ 1.600 g fed a proprietary premature formula or their own mother's preterm human milk (PTHM) fortified with a powdered protein-mineral supplement. At the time of each balance study, each infant had a stable condition, was tolerating feedings, and was gaining weight… 
Randomized outcome trial of human milk fortification and developmental outcome in preterm infants.
It is confirmed that breast milk fortifiers can improve short-term growth (when breast milk intakes are high) and beneficial effects on long-term development remained unproven; however, future research is required to evaluate potential adverse consequences and explore more optimal fortification strategies.
Zinc and Copper Nutritional Studies in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Comparison of Stable Isotopic Extrinsic Tag and Chemical Balance Methods1
It is concluded that extrinsic 70Zn and 65Cu tags can be used to study absorption of dietary zinc and copper by very low birth wt infants.
Nutrient accretion in preterm infants fed formula with different protein:energy ratios.
In this study, formula for preterm infants with a P:E ratio of 3.2 g/100 kcal provided no apparent benefit in terms of the proportion of fat to lean tissue accretion as determined from nutrient balance data.
Nutrition of Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Human Milk with or without Supplemental Trace Elements: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Elevated intake of calcium, phosphorus and zinc was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase activity but did not influence serum zinc concentration, and zinc deficiency was rare.
Nitrogen and fat balances in very low birth weight infants fed human milk fortified with human milk or bovine milk protein
The results indicate that feeding VLBW infants with human milk enriched with a well-balanced bovine fortifier fulfil their nutritional requirements as well as diets composed exclusively of human milk protein.
Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance: FM 85 fortification of human milk does not meet mineral needs of extremely low birthweight infants
Infants <1000 g have high nutritional needs for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, which are not met by a human milk fortifier widely used in Europe, and controlled trials are needed to assess requirements, duration and risks of mineral supplementation.
Enteral intake for very low birth weight infants: what should the composition be?
There is clearEvidence that, with respect to growth, very low birth infants are likely to benefit from a higher protein intake; however, there is no clear evidence that energy intakes greater than 120 kcal/kg/d are needed.
Protein fortification of human milk for feeding preterm infants
  • N. Räihä
  • Medicine
    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). Supplement
  • 1994
There is increasing evidence that early feeding history may program future intellectual outcome and a beneficial effect by breast milk on neurodevelopment in preterm infants.