Carnobacterium divergens and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum as spoilers or protective cultures in meat and seafood: phenotypic and genotypic characterization.
Eighty-nine strains representing the genus Carnobacterium, Enterococcus durans, Vagacoccus salmoninarum and atypical Lactobacillus strains MT12 and MT13 were examined for 92 unit characters. Computer analysis of the data resulted in the recovery of four major, five minor and thirteen single membered clusters. Three cluster-groups contained seventy-four of the Carnobacterium strains, Enterococcus durans NCFB 596T and Lactobacillus maltaromicus NCFB 2382T. Cluster-group A was equated with Carnobacterium piscicola and cluster-group B with Carnobacterium divergens. Lactobacillus maltaromicus NCFB 2382T shared many properties in common with the C. piscicola strains. The recovery of several Carnobacteriumstrains as single membered clusters suggests that the genus Carnobacterium is underspeciated. Further work is also required to determine the subspecific structure of Carnobacterium divergens and Carnobacterium piscicola.