Numerical modeling of laser tunneling ionization in particle-in-cell codes with a laser envelope model.

@article{Massimo2020NumericalMO,
  title={Numerical modeling of laser tunneling ionization in particle-in-cell codes with a laser envelope model.},
  author={Francesco Massimo and A. Beck and Julien Derouillat and Imen Zemzemi and Arnd E. Specka},
  journal={Physical review. E},
  year={2020},
  volume={102 3-1},
  pages={
          033204
        }
}
The resources needed for particle-in-cell simulations of laser wakefield acceleration can be greatly reduced in many cases of interest using an envelope model. However, the inclusion of tunneling ionization in this time-averaged treatment of laser-plasma acceleration is not straightforward, since the statistical features of the electron beams obtained through ionization should ideally be reproduced without resolving the high-frequency laser oscillations. In this context, an extension of an… 
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