# Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy.

@article{Nickerson2000NullHS, title={Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy.}, author={Raymond S. Nickerson}, journal={Psychological methods}, year={2000}, volume={5 2}, pages={ 241-301 } }

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is arguably the most widely used approach to hypothesis evaluation among behavioral and social scientists. It is also very controversial. A major concern expressed by critics is that such testing is misunderstood by many of those who use it. Several other objections to its use have also been raised. In this article the author reviews and comments on the claimed misunderstandings as well as on other criticisms of the approach, and he notes arguments…

## 973 Citations

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This article seeks to extend Fayer's paper on statistically significant correlations and to clarify some of the controversies regarding statistical significance testing by explaining that (1) the p value is not the probability of the null hypothesis; (2) rejecting thenull hypothesis does not prove that the alternative hypothesis is true; (3) not rejecting the null hypotheses does not proved that theAlternative hypothesis is false.

### Null Hypothesis Significance Testing, p-values, Effects Sizes and Confidence Intervals

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There has been controversy over Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) since the first quarter of the 20th century and misconceptions about it still abound. The first section of this paper…

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