# Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy.

@article{Nickerson2000NullHS, title={Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy.}, author={Raymond S. Nickerson}, journal={Psychological methods}, year={2000}, volume={5 2}, pages={ 241-301 } }

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is arguably the most widely used approach to hypothesis evaluation among behavioral and social scientists. It is also very controversial. A major concern expressed by critics is that such testing is misunderstood by many of those who use it. Several other objections to its use have also been raised. In this article the author reviews and comments on the claimed misunderstandings as well as on other criticisms of the approach, and he notes arguments… Expand

#### 895 Citations

The Controversy over Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Revisited

- Psychology
- 2005

Abstract. Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is one of the most widely used methods for testing hypotheses in psychological research. However, it has remained shrouded in controversy… Expand

Malignant side effects of null-hypothesis significance testing

- Psychology
- 2014

Six decades-worth of published information has shown irrefutably that null-hypothesis significance tests (NHSTs) provide no information about the reliability of research outcomes. Nevertheless, they… Expand

When Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Is Unsuitable for Research: A Reassessment

- Psychology, Medicine
- Front. Hum. Neurosci.
- 2017

It is suggested that, after sustained negative experience, NHST should no longer be the default, dominant statistical practice of all biomedical and psychological research. Expand

A Critical Assessment of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing in Quantitative Communication Research

- Psychology
- 2008

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most widely accepted and frequently used approach to statistical inference in quantitative communication research. NHST, however, is highly… Expand

Calculating the main alternatives to null-hypothesis-significance testing in between-subject experimental designs.

- Computer Science
- 2009

An attempt is made to provide the applied researcher with resources that make it possible to analyse and interpret the results of any research study using a group of indicators that lends a high level of validity to the statistical inference performed. Expand

Calculating the main alternatives to null-hypothesis-significance testing in between-subject experimental designs.

- Medicine
- Psicothema
- 2009

An attempt is made to provide the applied researcher with resources that make it possible to analyse and interpret the results of any research study using a group of indicators that lends a high level of validity to the statistical inference performed. Expand

When null hypothesis significance testing is unsuitable for research: a reassessment

- Biology, Psychology
- 2016

It is suggested that NHST should no longer be the default, dominant statistical practice of all biomedical and psychological research, and either more in-depth statistical training of more researchers and/or more widespread involvement of professional statisticians in all research is encouraged. Expand

Thou Shalt Not Bear False Witness Against Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

- Psychology, Medicine
- Educational and psychological measurement
- 2017

This article addresses the NHST debate from the perspective of scientific inquiry and inference, and concludes that NHST procedures remain the only (and suitable) option. Expand

Bayesian Hypothesis Testing: An Alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) in Psychology and Social Sciences

- Psychology
- 2017

Since the mid-1950s, there has been a clear predominance of the Frequentist approach to hypothesis testing, both in psychology and in social sciences. Despite its popularity in the field of… Expand

Significance, truth and proof of p values: reminders about common misconceptions regarding null hypothesis significance testing

- Medicine, Mathematics
- Quality of Life Research
- 2013

This article seeks to extend Fayer's paper on statistically significant correlations and to clarify some of the controversies regarding statistical significance testing by explaining that (1) the p value is not the probability of the null hypothesis; (2) rejecting thenull hypothesis does not prove that the alternative hypothesis is true; (3) not rejecting the null hypotheses does not proved that theAlternative hypothesis is false. Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 455 REFERENCES

On the Surprising Longevity of Flogged Horses: Why There Is a Case for the Significance Test

- Psychology
- 1997

Criticisms of null-hypothesis significance tests (NHSTs) are reviewed Used as formal, two-valued decision procedures, they often generate misleading conclusions However, critics who argue that NHSTs… Expand

The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing.

- Mathematics
- 1996

The many criticisms of null hypothesis testing suggest when it is not useful and what is should not be used for. This article explores when and why its use is appropriate. Null hypothesis testing is… Expand

In praise of the null hypothesis statistical test.

- Psychology
- 1997

Jacob Cohen (1994) raised a number of questions about the logic and information value of the null hypothesis statistical test (NHST). Specifically, he suggested that: (a) The NHST does not tell us… Expand

On the Logic and Purpose of Significance Testing

- Psychology
- 1997

There has been much recent attention given to the problems involved with the traditional approach to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Many have suggested that, perhaps, NHST should be… Expand

Should Significance Tests be Banned? Introduction to a Special Section Exploring the Pros and Cons

- Psychology
- 1997

Significance testing of null hypotheses is the standard epistemological method for advancing scientific knowledge in psychology, even though it has drawbacks and it leads to common inferential… Expand

Rejoinder: Editorial Policies Regarding Statistical Significance Tests: Further Comments

- Psychology
- 1997

In this response to Robinson and Levin’s comments on Thompson (1996), it is argued that describing results as “significant” rather than “statistically significant” is confusing to those persons most… Expand

Effect sizes and p values: what should be reported and what should be replicated?

- Psychology, Medicine
- Psychophysiology
- 1996

The most-criticized flaws of NHT can be avoided when the importance of a hypothesis is used to determine that a finding is worthy of report, and when p approximately equal to .05 is treated as insufficient basis for confidence in the replicability of an isolated non-null finding. Expand

Précis of statistical significance: rationale, validity, and utility.

- Mathematics, Medicine
- The Behavioral and brain sciences
- 1998

The null-hypothesis significance-test procedure (NHSTP) is defended in the context of the theory-corroboration experiment, as well as the following contrasts: (a) substantive hypotheses versus… Expand

Statistical Significance and Replicability

- Psychology
- 1998

Commentators agree with me that statistical significance does not betoken replicability, but not for the reasons I give. Chow (1998) defends the use of significance tests by arguing that they are… Expand

The concept of statistical significance and the controversy about one-tailed tests.

- Psychology, Medicine
- Psychological review
- 1960

It is suggested here that most of the disagreements emerging from this controversy stem from a misunderstanding of the term "significance," and it is further suggested that the same misunderstanding runs through many discussions of two-tailed tests as well. Expand