Null Effects of Game Violence, Game Difficulty, and 2D:4D Digit Ratio on Aggressive Behavior

@article{Hilgard2019NullEO,
  title={Null Effects of Game Violence, Game Difficulty, and 2D:4D Digit Ratio on Aggressive Behavior},
  author={Joseph Hilgard and Christopher R. Engelhardt and Jeffrey N. Rouder and Ines L. Segert and Bruce D. Bartholow},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2019},
  volume={30},
  pages={606 - 616}
}
Researchers have suggested that acute exposure to violent video games is a cause of aggressive behavior. We tested this hypothesis by using violent and nonviolent games that were closely matched, collecting a large sample, and using a single outcome. We randomly assigned 275 male undergraduates to play a first-person-shooter game modified to be either violent or less violent and hard or easy. After completing the game-play session, participants were provoked by a confederate and given an… 

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