Null Effects of Game Violence, Game Difficulty, and 2D:4D Digit Ratio on Aggressive Behavior

  title={Null Effects of Game Violence, Game Difficulty, and 2D:4D Digit Ratio on Aggressive Behavior},
  author={Joseph Hilgard and Christopher R. Engelhardt and Jeffrey N. Rouder and Ines L. Segert and Bruce D. Bartholow},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={606 - 616}
Researchers have suggested that acute exposure to violent video games is a cause of aggressive behavior. We tested this hypothesis by using violent and nonviolent games that were closely matched, collecting a large sample, and using a single outcome. We randomly assigned 275 male undergraduates to play a first-person-shooter game modified to be either violent or less violent and hard or easy. After completing the game-play session, participants were provoked by a confederate and given an… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Stress and Violence in Video Games: Their Influence on Aggression
This study investigated whether stress or violent content in video games plays a greater role in aggressiveness towards a cooperative partner while playing a video game. It was hypothesized that
Is It Only the Violence?
Abstract. The results of prior research investigating whether the violence in violent video games leads to increased subsequent aggression are mixed. Some observers question whether the difficulty
This article aimed to study the relationship between playing violent video games and aggression among youth of Mardan. Participants (60 males and 60 females),age range from 15-29 years were
The Association Video Gameplay has with College Students Academic Achievement and Aggression
This study examined the association playing video games has with college students' academic achievement and aggression. Researchers used a cross-sectional research design with convenience sampling
Reexamining the Findings of the American Psychological Association’s 2015 Task Force on Violent Media: A Meta-Analysis
Evidence warrants a more cautious interpretation of the effects of violent games on aggression than provided by the APA technical report or resolution statement, particularly for experimental studies.
Do longitudinal studies support long-term relationships between aggressive game play and youth aggressive behaviour? A meta-analytic examination
Overall, longitudinal studies do not appear to support substantive long-term links between aggressive game content and youth aggression, and relationships appear better explained by methodological weaknesses and researcher expectancy effects than true effects in the real world.


The Effect of Video Game Competition and Violence on Aggressive Behavior: Which Characteristic Has the Greatest Influence?
Objective: This study is the first to our knowledge to isolate the effect of video game violence and competitiveness on aggressive behavior. Method: In Pilot Study 1, a violent and nonviolent video
Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life.
The results from both studies are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term ( e.g, delinquency).
Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model
Research conducted over several decades has shown that violent media increase aggression. It is now time to move beyond the question of whether violent media increase aggression to answering the
The Effects of Reward and Punishment in Violent Video Games on Aggressive Affect, Cognition, and Behavior
Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking, and that punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive Thinking, and aggressive behavior.
Comparing Apples and Oranges? Evidence for Pace of Action as a Confound in Research on Digital Games and Aggression
Most studies investigating the effects of violence in digital games on aggression and physiological arousal feature two groups of participants either playing a violent or a nonviolent game. However,
Biased Estimation of Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression: Contributing Factors and Boundary Conditions
In order to improve the understanding of media violence effects, it is crucial to extend knowledge about factors that threaten the validity of such effects in empirical research. Research artifacts
Video Games Do Affect Social Outcomes
Data from 98 independent studies revealed that for both violent video games and prosocial video games, there was a significant association with social outcomes, indicating that video game exposure causally affects social outcomes and that there are both short- and long-term effects.