Nucleus accumbens amphetamine microinjections unconditionally elicit 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

@article{Burgdorf2001NucleusAA,
  title={Nucleus accumbens amphetamine microinjections unconditionally elicit 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.},
  author={Jeff Burgdorf and Brian Knutson and Jaak Panksepp and Satoshi Ikemoto},
  journal={Behavioral neuroscience},
  year={2001},
  volume={115 4},
  pages={940-4}
}
The authors have hypothesized that, in adult rats, 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) index a state characterized by high arousal and expectations of reward. This study was conducted to investigate whether dopamine agonism of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) could evoke such an appetitive state, by examining the effects of NAcc amphetamine (AMPH) microinjections on USVs. Intra-NAcc AMPH injections (0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 microg unilaterally) produced robust, dose-dependent increases in 50-kHz USVs… CONTINUE READING
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