# Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174 DNA

@article{Sanger1977NucleotideSO,
title={Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage $\phi$X174 DNA},
author={Frederick Sanger and Gillian M. Air and Bart Barrell and Nigel L. Brown and A. R. Coulson and John C. Fiddes and Clyde A. Hutchison and Patrick M. Slocombe and Michael Smith},
journal={Nature},
year={1977},
volume={265},
pages={687-695}
}
A DNA sequence for the genome of bacteriophage φX174 of approximately 5,375 nucleotides has been determined using the rapid and simple ‘plus and minus’ method. The sequence identifies many of the features responsible for the production of the proteins of the nine known genes of the organism, including initiation and termination sites for the proteins and RNAs. Two pairs of genes are coded by the same region of DNA using different reading frames.
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The nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174
The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA of bacteriophage φX174 has been determined and the amino acid sequences of the ten proteins for which the DNA codes have also been deduced. Expand
Nucleotide sequence of the origin of replication in bacteriophage ΦX174 RF DNA
• Biology, Medicine
• Nature
• 1978
The gene A protein of bacteriophageΦX174 has been used in vitro to convert ΦX RFI DNA into the relaxed RFII form by nicking the viral strand and the nucleotide sequence at the 3′ end of the nick gives the exact position of the origin of Φx RF DNA replication. Expand
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• Biology, Medicine
• Journal of molecular biology
• 1977
This region of bacteriophage φX174 DNA in the regions of genes A and B has been sequenced using the rapid method of Sanger & Coulson (1975) with confirmation by depurination analysis, and is the second region of the φ X174 genome where two genes are translated from the same DNA using different reading frames. Expand
Nucleotide sequence of the F protein coding region of bacteriophage phiX174 and the amino acid sequence of its product.
• G. Air, +5 authors A. Smith
• Chemistry, Medicine
• Journal of molecular biology
• 1978
The nucleotide sequence of the region coding for the F protein of bacteriophage φX174 has now been completed, in conjunction with extended peptide sequence analysis of the gene F protein. The proteinExpand
Potential for variability through multiple gene products of bacteriophage ΦX174
• Biology, Medicine
• Nature
• 1978
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Nucleotide sequence of the filamentous bacteriophage M13 DNA genome: comparison with phage fd.
• Biology, Medicine
• Gene
• 1980
The 6407 nucleotide-long sequence of bacteriophage M13 DNA has been determined using both the chemical degradation and chain-termination methods of DNA sequencing and appears to be only a single nucleotide shorter than fd DNA. Expand
Physical structure of the replication origin of bacteriophage lambda.
• Biology, Medicine
• Science
• 1977
The nucleotide sequence of part of the replication region of wild-type bacteriophage lambda and of four mutants defective in the origin of DNA replication (ori-) has been determined and contains a number of unusual features. Expand
DNA sequence of a region of the φX174 genome coding for a ribosome binding site
• Biology, Medicine
• Nature
• 1977
The DNA region corresponding to a newly identified ribosome binding site in φX174 DNA is sequenced and mapped in relation to the physical map of φX174. Assignments of the binding site to a specificExpand
Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of bacteriophage S13 DNA.
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• Gene
• 1985
The complete sequence of bacteriophage S13 DNA has been determined and many of the silent changes are found in the same nucleotide sequence positions in phage G4, confirming the interrelationship between the three phages. Expand

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The gene A protein is shown to be a highly specific DNA endonuclease which breaks one phosphodiester bond in the viral strand of either double-stranded, circular ϕX replicative form I (RFI), or in single-stranding, circularπX viral DNA; it is inactive against all other species of DNA tested. Expand
The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the N (5′) terminal region of gene G of bacteriophage φX174
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Abstract Gene G of bacteriophage φX174 DNA has been characterized by three techniques. (1) Transcription by RNA polymerase of appropriate DNA fragments from restriction enzyme digestion. (2) Use ofExpand
DNA sequence at the C termini of the overlapping genes A and B in bacteriophage φX174
Sequence determination of mutants in genes A and B confirms that these constitute another pair of genes in φX174 which are translated from the same DNA sequence using different reading frames.
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The nucleotide sequence of the intercistronic region between genes F and G in bacteriophage X174 DNA has been determined and this region is identified as containing the major hairpin loop found in X174 single-stranded viral DNA. Expand
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From the 5′ A of the initiating ATG to the 3′ end of the terminator triplet, the gene consists of 528 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 175 amino acids, molecular weight 19,053. Expand
Physical structure of the replication origin of bacteriophage lambda.
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The nucleotide sequence of part of the replication region of wild-type bacteriophage lambda and of four mutants defective in the origin of DNA replication (ori-) has been determined and contains a number of unusual features. Expand
Isolation and Sequence Analysis of a Ribosome-protected Fragment from Bacteriophage φX 174 DNA
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The DNA sequence corresponding to the gene G spike protein initiation site has been determined by analysis of endonuclease IV and ‘Streptodornase’ digests. The sequence has many features in commonExpand