Nucleotide polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus of Drosophila melanogaster

  title={Nucleotide polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus of Drosophila melanogaster},
  author={Martin Kreitman},
The sequencing of eleven cloned Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes from five natural populations has revealed a large number of previously hidden polymorphisms. Only one of the 43 polymorphisms results in an amino acid change, the one responsible for the two electrophoretic variants (fast, Adh-f, and slow, Adh-s) found in nearly all natural populations. The implication is that most amino acid changes in Adh would be selectively deleterious. 
The population genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Drosophila melanogaster
Between and within population variation in ADH activity and AD H protein in flies in the wild is mainly due to the relative frequencies of AdhF and Adhs.
Molecular similarity of Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase thermostable alleles from populations on different continents
Allele specific oligonucleotide probes have been used to show that DNA, amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, from eleven thermostable Adh alleles extracted from populations on different
Persistence of an alcohol dehydrogenase thermostable variant in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster.
A temporal survey of the alcohol dehydrogenase locus in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster from the Canary Islands has revealed the existence of an electrophoretic Fast thermostable
Conservation and change in the DNA sequences coding for alcohol dehydrogenase in sibling species of Drosophila
The DNA sequences of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes of four very closely related species of Drosophila show that the rates of nucleotide change vary greatly in different functional domains of
Adh Nucleotide Variation in Drosophila willistoni: High Replacement Polymorphism in an Electrophoretically Monomorphic Protein
DNA sequence analysis of 18 alleles throughout the distribution of the species has revealed six replacement polymorphisms and the ratio of replacement to silent polymorphisms is higher in D. willistoni than in any other Drosophila species studied for Adh nucleotide variation.
Allele-specific population structure of Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase at the molecular level.
The results suggest that the current range of Fast and In(2L)t Slow haplotypes is recent and that an older genetic differentiation between populations was followed by allele-specific gene flow.
Molecular population genetics of an electrophoretically monomorphic protein in the alcohol dehydrogenase region of Drosophila pseudoobscura.
The results suggest that the ADH enzyme of D. pseudoobscura lacks amino acid polymorphisms because theneutral mutation rate of nonsynonymous sites is low, and the neutral mutation parameter for synonymous sites is heterogeneous between domains of the Adh region.
Dehydrogenase Locus in the
Statistical analyses of the Adh alleles suggested the action of balancing selection and revealed significant linkage disequilibrium among three of the variable sites, and the effective population size was estimated to be only slightly smaller than that of continental species and on the same order of magnitude as the actual size.
An association between ADH protein levels and polymorphic nucleotide variation in the Adh gene of Drosophila melanogaster.
Southern analysis of the Adh region of 212 Drosophila melanogaster lines collected from the Tahbilk winery revealed linkage disequilibrium between a 37-bp insertion and the fast electrophoretic variant of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-F), suggesting that either polymorphic nucleotide-site variants positively associated with delta 2 on the second chromosome or delta 2 itself increases larval levels of ADH protein.


Restriction map variation in the Adh region of Drosophila.
The relative distributions of restriction sites and insertion/ deletion variations among subpopulations and species suggest that the insertion/deletion variation may be mildly deleterious.
An Electrophoretically Cryptic Alcohol Dehydrogenase Variant in Drosophila Melanogaster. 11. Post-Electrophoresis Heat-Treatment Screening of Natural Populations
The two common genetic variants of alcohol dehydrogenase in D. melanogaster, ADH-F and ADH-S, differ in substrate specificity and electrophoretic mobility. A third inherited variant, ADH-FCh.D., has
Alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Drosophila melanogaster: relationship of intervening sequences to functional domains in the protein.
The gene that codes for Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase EC was identified in a bacteriophage lambda library of genomic Drosophila DNA by using ADH cDNA
Isolation and partial characterization of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene.
  • D. Goldberg
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1980
The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated by utilizing a mutant strain in which the Adh locus is deleted, and two intervening sequences were identified within Adh by S1 nuclease mapping experiments.
The hypothesis that positive relationships between maximum temperature and Adhs and GpdhF gene frequencies underlie the latitudinal clines in North America is tested by examining these relationships on the continents of Asia, Europe, Australasia and North America.
Spontaneous mutation rates at enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • T. Mukai, C. Cockerham
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
In a marked-inversion-balanced lethal system mutations were accumulated at a minimum pressure of natural selection on 2000 second chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster that originated from 4 stem chromosomes, it is speculated that most viability and other fitness polygenes are located in controlling regions outside the structural genes.
A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. II. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura.
This study shows that there is a considerable amount of genic variation segregating in all of the populations studied and that the real variation in these populations must be greater than the authors are able to demonstrate.
The genetic structure of natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. XI. Genetic variability in a local population.
The mechanisms of the maintenance of genetic variability in the population are discussed and inversion heterozygotes seem to have slightly better viability than the inversion-free heterozygote on the average, but not significantly so.