Nucleosomes inhibit the initiation of transcription but allow chain elongation with the displacement of histones

@article{Lorch1987NucleosomesIT,
  title={Nucleosomes inhibit the initiation of transcription but allow chain elongation with the displacement of histones},
  author={Yahli Lorch and Janice W. LaPointe and Roger D. Kornberg},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1987},
  volume={49},
  pages={203-210}
}
Influence of chromatin folding on transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase III.
TLDR
The transcriptional repression observed after incorporation of genes into chromatin depends not only on occlusion of the promoter elements through direct contact with histones but also on compaction of nucleosomal arrays which occurs under the conditions of the transcription reactions.
Nucleosome displacement in transcription.
TLDR
It is becoming increasingly clear that the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery is adapted to exploit the presence of nucleosomes in very sophisticated ways.
Transcription of dinucleosomal templates.
TLDR
The results indicate that linker histones and HMG1 can direct the positioning of core histone-DNA interactions, restrict nucleosome mobility, and repress transcription.
Transcription through the nucleosome.
Initiation on chromatin templates in a yeast RNA polymerase II transcription system.
TLDR
Templates were prepared with either the TATA box or transcription start sites of the yeast CYC1 promoter in a nucleosome, and inhibition appeared to be relieved by the activator protein Gal4-VP16 binding to a site upstream of the promoter.
Assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes before assembly of nucleosomes allows efficient initiation of transcription on nucleosomal templates
TLDR
It is demonstrated that assembly of a complete RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex before nucleosome assembly results in nucleosomal templates which support initiation in vitro as efficiently as naked DNA.
Transcription Through Chromatin
TLDR
The histone octamer has a remarkable ability to survive transcription by stepping around the transcribing polymerase without ever going free in solution, and nucleosomes can present a serious barrier for transcription that dramatically decreases the rate of transcription and is probably regulated in vivo.
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References

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TLDR
Using digestion with endodeoxyribonuclease EcoRI as a probe of mobility, it was found that nucleosome movement is slow compared to the time taken for RNA polymerase to transcribe through regions organised into nucleosomes, but transcription leads to at least some displacement ofucleosomes relative to their original site on the DNA.
Transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases A and B of chromatin assembled in vitro.
TLDR
Chromatin was assembled in vitro from simian virus 40 DNA form I and the calf-thymus four histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 and nucleosomes were found to inhibit both RNA chain initiation and elongation.
Transcription of histone-covered T7 DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.
Purified core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and bacteriophage T7 DNA have been reconstituted to form a nucleoprotein complex, and the properties of this complex as a template for transcription by
Binding of E. coli RNA polymerase to chromatin subunits.
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TLDR
The fundamental template restriction of chromatin (as compared to deproteinized DNA) is retained in the isolated nucleosomes and Transcription can proceed through nucleosome resulting in RNA chains approximately 150 nucleotides long.
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TLDR
Variation of reaction conditions, or of the divalent metal ion, does not restore the renaturability of the DNA template, however, variation of the duplex 3'-terminal sequence of the template led to significant alterations.
Effect of histone acetylation on structure and in vitro transcription of chromatin.
TLDR
It was shown that acetylated nucleosomes are efficient inhibitors of in vitro RNA synthesis by the E. coli holoenzyme as well as by the mammalian polymerases A and B.
Transcription of nucleosomal DNA in SV40 minichromosomes by eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA polymerases.
SV 40 minichromosomes can be transcribed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Size analysis of transcripts indicated that DNA in nucleosomes was accessible for transcription by both
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TLDR
Under optimal reaction conditions, the viral chromatin proteins did not limit the rate of RNA chain elongation, and high molecular weight RNA was synthesized by the SV40 chromatin.
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