Nucleation of ice and its management in ecosystems

  title={Nucleation of ice and its management in ecosystems},
  author={Felix Franks},
  journal={Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences},
  pages={557 - 574}
  • F. Franks
  • Published 15 March 2003
  • Environmental Science
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
In addition to the gas and liquid phases, water can exist in many different solid states. Some of these are the well–studied crystalline ice polymorphs and the clathrate hydrates, but at least two distinguishable amorphous solid forms have also been shown to exist. This diversity of possible condensed states implies a multiplicity of transitions, each of them presumably associated with a nucleation step. Disagreement still exists as to whether the amorphous states can be regarded as metastable… 

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