Nuclear structure in cancer cells

  title={Nuclear structure in cancer cells},
  author={Daniele Zink and Andrew H. Fischer and Jeffrey A. Nickerson},
  journal={Nature Reviews Cancer},
Nuclear architecture — the spatial arrangement of chromosomes and other nuclear components — provides a framework for organizing and regulating the diverse functional processes within the nucleus. There are characteristic differences in the nuclear architectures of cancer cells, compared with normal cells, and some anticancer treatments restore normal nuclear structure and function. Advances in understanding nuclear structure have revealed insights into the process of malignant transformation… 
The role of nuclear organization in cancer
Relationships between nuclear organization and transcription in terms of the three‐dimensional arrangement of genes in the interphase cancer nucleus and the regulatory functions of nuclear matrix proteins are discussed.
Nuclear Mechanopathology and Cancer Diagnosis.
Nuclear microenvironments in biological control and cancer
Mechanistic insights into the temporal and spatial organization of machinery for gene expression within the nucleus, which is compromised in tumours, provide a novel platform for diagnosis and therapy.
Control of nuclear size by NPC proteins.
Based on current understanding of the physiology of the nuclear pore complex and its constituents, which are collectively referred to as nucleoporins (Nups), this work discusses how the structural and functional ablation of the NPC and Nups could directly or indirectly contribute to the changes in nuclear size observed in cancer cells.
Nuclear Dynamics and Chromatin Structure: Implications for Pancreatic Cancer
The factors that regulate nuclear dynamics and their implications for pancreatic cancer biology are highlighted and discussed.
Nuclear envelope invaginations and cancer.
The link between nuclear invaginations and irregularities with cancer and possible mechanistic roles they might have in tumorigenesis are described and explored.
Nuclear Microenvironments in Cancer Series PROSPECTS Nuclear Microenvironments in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment
The nuclear architecture plays an important role in the temporal and spatial control of complex functional processes within the nucleus. Alterations in nuclear structures are characteristic of cancer
Lamina Associated Domains and Gene Regulation in Development and Cancer
The nuclear lamina (NL) is a thin meshwork of filaments that lines the inner nuclear membrane, thereby providing a platform for chromatin binding and supporting genome organization that contains thousands of genes that are lowly transcribed, and enriched for repressive histone modifications.
Regulation of diverse nuclear shapes: pathways working independently, together
The known mechanisms governing nuclear shape in various unicellular and multicellular organisms are reviewed, including the non-spherical nuclei and non-lamin-related structural determinants.


Nuclear dreams: The malignant alteration of nuclear architecture
If biochemical correlates to malignant alterations in nuclear structure can be identified then nuclear matrix proteins and, perhaps nuclear matrix‐associated structural RNAs, may be an attractive set of diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.
The transcriptional role of PML and the nuclear body
The current understanding of the biological functions of PML and the nuclear body is summarized, and a role for these intra-nuclear structures in the regulation of transcription is discussed.
Dynamic continuity of nuclear and mitotic matrix proteins in the cell cycle
Evidence from the laboratory and elsewhere supports the view that the nuclear matrix exists as a dynamic architectural continuum, embracing the genome and maintaining cellular regulation throughout the cell cycle.
The spatial organization of human chromosomes within the nuclei of normal and emerin-mutant cells.
The intranuclear organization of chromosomes is not altered in cells that lack the integral nuclear membrane protein emerin, from an individual with X-linked Emery--Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, which suggests that emerin is not necessary for localizing chromosomes at the nuclear periphery and that the muscular Dystrophy phenotype in such individuals is not due to grossly altered nuclear organization of chromatin.
Nuclear lamins: building blocks of nuclear architecture.
Experimental and genetic evidence suggest that nuclear lamins are involved in a number of other functions including nuclear envelope assembly, DNA synthesis, transcription, and apoptosis, and speculate about possible mechanisms through which mutations in lamins give rise to disease.
Experimental observations of a nuclear matrix.
Only by achieving a biochemical characterization of the nuclear matrix will the authors advance beyond simple microscopic observations of structure to a better understanding of nuclear matrix function, regulation and post-mitotic assembly.
Tissue phenotype depends on reciprocal interactions between the extracellular matrix and the structural organization of the nucleus.
A dynamic interaction between the extracellular matrix, nuclear organization, and tissue phenotype is experimentally demonstrated, which shows that rather than passively reflecting changes in gene expression,nuclear organization itself can modulate the cellular and tissues phenotype.
Molecular aspects of diagnostic nucleolar and nuclear envelope changes in prostate cancer
Critical review of the available information suggests that increased ribosome production per se may be insufficient to explain nucleolar enlargement in PIN, and other newer functions of nucleoli may therefore need to be invoked.
Inheritance of gene density–related higher order chromatin arrangements in normal and tumor cell nuclei
A significant difference in the radial distribution of #18 and #19 chromatin is a common feature of higher order chromatin architecture in both normal and malignant cell types, however, in seven of eight tumor cell lines, the difference was less pronounced compared with normal cell nuclei due to a higher fraction of nuclei showing an inverted CT position.
Structure, organization, and dynamics of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus has an organization and contains a number of discrete macromolecular domains that coordinate a variety of nuclear processes.