Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multple Nuclear Explosions

  title={Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multple Nuclear Explosions},
  author={Richard P. Turco and Owen Brian Toon and Thomas P. Ackerman and James B. Pollack and Carl E. Sagan},
  pages={1283 - 1292}
The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions. Although the results are necessarily imprecise due to wide range of possible scenaros and uncertainty in physical parameters, the most probable first-order effects are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield… 

Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed, and serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere.

Atmospheric effects from post-nuclear fires

During a large nuclear war, the atmosphere would be loaded with huge quantities of pollutants, which are produced by fires in urban and industrial centers, cultivated lands, forests and grasslands.

Foreseeable Effects of Nuclear Detonations on a Local Environment: Boulder County, Colorado

The effects on Boulder County, Colorado, of a major nuclear war are predicted. Although many of the effects of such a horrific event would be global in nature, the direct ones on Boulder County were

Nuclear winter revisited with a modern climate model and current nuclear arsenals : Still catastrophic consequences

[1] Twenty years ago, the results of climate model simulations of the response to smoke and dust from a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers could be summarized as ‘‘nuclear winter,’’

Climatic consequences of regional nuclear conflicts

We use a modern climate model and new esti- mates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nu- clear war between emerging third

Atmospheric and Hydrogeological Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions: Theory, Experiment, and Monitoring

In the 1980s–1990s possible climatic consequences of the nuclear war were assessed in the papers by academician G.S. Golitsyn and other scientists. The assessment was based on the data of modeling of

Importance of local mesoscale factors in any assessment of nuclear winter

There is a possibility that severe climate perturbations would follow a major nuclear war (the ‘nuclear winter’) due to the injection of large amounts of smoke into the atmosphere1–6. Given

Nuclear War: Its Environmental Impact

This paper examines the widespread environmental effects, sensu stricto, that would result from a large-scale nuclear war and the resultant ecological impacts. Singled out for analysis are the



Environmental Effects of an Impact-Generated Dust Cloud: Implications for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinctions

A model of the evolution and radiative effects of a debris cloud from a hypothesized impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary suggests that the cloud could have reduced the amount of light at

Effect of nuclear explosions on stratospheric nitric oxide and ozone

This article reviews the derivation by Foley and Ruderman of the injection of nitric oxide into the stratosphere by nuclear bomb tests and compares it with similar studies. Upper and lower limits of

Long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Subfreezing temperatures, low light levels, and high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation extending for many months after a large-scale nuclear war could destroy the biological support systems

Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Made Perturbations of Trace Gases

A one-dimensional radiative-convective model for the atmospheric thermal structure is used to compute the change in the surface temperature of the earth for large assumed increases in the trace gas concentrations; doubling the N2O, CH4, and NH3 concentrations is found to cause additive increases inthe surface temperature.

Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction

A hypothesis is suggested which accounts for the extinctions and the iridium observations, and the chemical composition of the boundary clay, which is thought to come from the stratospheric dust, is markedly different from that of clay mixed with the Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones, which are chemically similar to each other.

The Possible Link Between Net Surface Heating and El Ni�o

  • B. Weare
  • Environmental Science
  • 1983
A composite analysis of the four El Ni�o events of 1957, 1965, 1972, and 1976 suggests that local surface heating is important during the early part of an event, whereas dynamical factors dominate later.

Biologically damaging radiation amplified by ozone depletions

Many recent studies1–3 indicate that releases of chlorofluoro-carbons (CFCs)—mainly chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs)—into the atmosphere deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Potentially dangerous

Explosion dust particle size measurements.

Predicted mass extinction coefficients, under the assumption of dust material density of 2.5 g cm-3, are of the order of 0.05 m2 g-1 at both visible and IR wavelengths, suggest that extinction should be nearly neutral in agreement with transmission measurements made during some of the tests.