Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications

  title={Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications},
  author={Salvatore Gizzo and Tiziana Fanelli and Stefania Di Gangi and Carlo Saccardi and Tito Silvio Patrelli and Alessandra Zambon and Ani bt. Omar and Donato D'Antona and Giovanni Battista Nardelli},
  journal={Gynecological Endocrinology},
  pages={758 - 763}
Despite many highly effective methods of contraception are available nowadays, many pregnancies are unintended. Emergency contraception (EC) is the use of drug or device after unprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. It is a woman’s last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Nevertheless the confusion about mechanisms of action, side effects, clinical efficacy and controindications makes the intervention underused in every setting investigated. So far levonorgestrel (LNG) has… 
Ulipristal Acetate
The effectiveness of emergency contraception (EC) is usually estimated by comparing the number of observed pregnancies to that of expected pregnancies after unprotected intercourse. Second-generation
Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development
  • A. Nelson
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    Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • 2015
The role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis is discussed with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I – II testing.
Anthropometric Characteristics of Women on Hormonal Contraceptives in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH)
Except for skeletal muscle mass, women on hormonal contraceptives have higher but non-significant mean values for all anthropometric parameters compared to the control, which is relevant to gynecologists, obstetricians, family physicians, medical anthropologists and research scientists.
Intrauterine Device Versus Levonorgestrel As Emergency Contraception. Observational Study
Emergency IUD has higher efficacy than emergency contraceptive pills (LNG) and has fewer side effects, however, there is more satisfaction regarding emergency contraceptives pills (ECP) as compared to IUD.
Female sterilization: Update on clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications
  • S. Gizzo, A. Bertocco, G. Nardelli
  • Medicine
    Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • 2014
This review compares studies concerning female sterilization in order to define the most suitable approach and device for each patient considering timing, safety, cost-effectiveness, failure rate, complication rate and patient satisfaction.


Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate
Evidence is provided that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment and is in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that U PA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG.
Update on emergency contraception.
  • P. Murphy
  • Medicine
    Journal of midwifery & women's health
  • 2012
An overview of the history of EC methods and the current availability of oral and intrauterine EC methods is provided and Clinicians should be aware of all available options in order to counsel women in need of EC appropriately.
Interventions for emergency contraception.
Mifepristone middle dose (25-50 mg) was superior to other hormonal regimens and Levonorgestrel was more effective than the Yuzpe regimen in preventing pregnancy.
Mechanism of action of emergency contraception.
Ulipristal Acetate (ella): A Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator For Emergency Contraception.
The female menstrual cycle comprises three distinct phases: follicular, ovulatory, and luteal; ulipristal acetate was developed to be a derivative of 19-norprogesterone, and the drug is used to prevent unintended pregnancy for up to five days after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure.
How do levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills prevent pregnancy? Some considerations
  • B. Mozzanega, E. Cosmi
  • Medicine
    Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • 2011
Review of the evidence suggests that LNG-ECPs cannot prevent implantation, and the Statement based on seven reference papers which considered a total of only 142 patients, divided into still different subgroups got quite different conclusions.
Ulipristal Acetate Taken 48–120 Hours After Intercourse for Emergency Contraception
Ulipristal acetate is effective and well-tolerated for emergency contraception 48–120 hours after unprotected intercourse, and this results satisfy the protocol-defined statistical criteria for success.
Pregnancy outcome after levonorgestrel-only emergency contraception failure: a prospective cohort study.
There was no association between the use of LNG-EC pills and the risk of major congenital malformations, pregnancy complications or any other adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study.