Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?

  title={Now You See It, Now You Don't: Why Do Real Estate Agents Withhold Available Houses from Black Customers?},
  author={Jan Ondrich and Stephen L. Ross and John Yinger},
  journal={Review of Economics and Statistics},
Potential home buyers may initiate contact with a real estate agent by asking to see a particular advertised house. This paper asks whether an agent's response to such a request depends on the race of the buyer or on whether the house is located in an integrated neighborhood. Like previous research about the causes of housing discrimination, this paper uses data from fair housing audits, a matched-pair technique for comparing the treatment of equally qualified black and white home buyers… 

Sorting or Steering: Experimental Evidence on the Economic Effects of Housing Discrimination

Housing discrimination is illegal. However, paired-tester audit experiments have revealed evidence of discrimination in the interactions between potential buyers and real estate agents, raising

Brokering Ties and Inequality: How White Real Estate Agents Recreate Advantage and Exclusion in Urban Housing Markets

The real estate brokerage industry has long perpetuated overt discrimination against minority housing consumers, but we know little about how it may reproduce inequality through less overt means. In

Ethnic discrimination upon request? Real estate agents’ strategies for discriminatory questions of clients

Ethnic discrimination is very persistent on the rental market. Real estate agents hold a unique position, as the intermediate link between owners with specific (discriminatory) desires on the one

The effect of criminal convictions on real estate agent decisions in New York City

Abstract Prior research suggests that a felony conviction limits housing opportunities. This study used an experimental audit design to determine the effect of a felony conviction on real estate

By Words and Deeds: Racial Steering by Real Estate Agents in the U.S. in 2000

Abstract Although prohibited by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968, studies in the 1980s found that racial steering by real estate agents in the U.S. was still occurring. That legislation was

Are Protected Classes Discriminated in Rental Housing Market? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment

This paper provides the first evidence of how landlord treatment of rental housing applicants varies across race, gender, religion, sexuality, and family status. We adopt a randomized correspondence

Agent Intermediation and Racial Price Differentials Preliminary Draft

Most housing transactions are brokered wherein the buyer and seller do not meet in person. In which case the buyer’s race is not revealed to the seller, so the seller cannot discriminate based on



Do Landlords Discriminate? The Incidence and Causes of Racial Discrimination in Rental Housing Markets

Abstract Discrimination in housing markets occurs when equally qualified people are treated differently because of their membership in a particular group. This study focuses on racial and ethnic

The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology, and Fair-Lending Enforcement

In 2000, homeownership in the United States stood at an all-time high of 67.4 percent, but the homeownership rate was more than 50 percent higher for non-Hispanic whites than for blacks or Hispanics.

Racial steering in urban housing markets: A review of the audit evidence

A secondary analysis of thirty-six fair housing audits conducted between 1974 and 1987 reveals that racial steering has been a widespread, consequential phenomenon in many urban housing markets

A Tale of Two Cities: Racial and Ethnic Geographic Disparities in Home Mortgage Lending in Boston and Philadelphia

Recent data released pursuant to the 1989 amendments to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) show large disparities in mortgage lending between minority and nonminority neighborhoods and have

How Common is Housing Discrimination? Improving on Traditional Measures

Abstract Fair housing audits are an important tool for measuring the incidence of racial and ethnic discrimination in housing markets. Traditional measures of incidence calculate the proportion of

Discrimination in Labor Markets

This volume contains revised versions of the papers presented in 1971 at the Princeton University Conference on Discrimination in Labor Markets, and the formal discussions of them.This paper is by

Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data

The results of this study indicate that minority applicants, on average, do have greater debt burdens, higher loan-to-value ratios, and weaker credit histories and they are less likely to buy

Patterns of racial steering in four metropolitan areas


ABSTRACT:This article reports on the print media advertising practices of a major real estate company operating in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during 1981–1984. Statistical findings suggest that, compared