Novichok agents: a historical, current, and toxicological perspective

  title={Novichok agents: a historical, current, and toxicological perspective},
  author={Peter Ray Chai and Bryan D Hayes and Timothy B. Erickson and Edward W. Boyer},
  journal={Toxicology communications},
  pages={45 - 48}
Abstract The Novichok, or “newcomer” class of nerve agents are lesser characterized, weaponized organophosphate agents. The use of known Novichok agents in warfare is banned under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1997. Novichok agents are considered more potent than VX gas and can be applied in unitary and binary forms. Like other nerve agents, Novichok agents irreversibly bind acetylcholinesterase and produce a cholinergic toxidrome. Uniquely, these agents are thought to also target neurons… 

Novichok: an overview of the world’s deadliest nerve agent

Nichok was developed by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and is reportedly ten times more lethal than VX, the nerve agent used to assassinate the half-brother of North Korean leader Kim Jong-un.

Chemical Properties, Biological Activities and Poisoning Treatment of Novichok: A Review

The treatment of Novichok agent poisoning is similar to management of other nerve agents, such as atropine and pralidoxime administered intravenously and the potential molecular interaction and treatment of this compound is discussed.

Recent Developments in the Clinical Management of Weaponized Nerve Agent Toxicity

This chapter reviews important advances in the clinical management of individuals exposed to nerve agents and discusses contingency management and alternate antidotes in the setting of mass depletion of existing antidote stock.

Enzymatic Decontamination of G-Type, V-Type and Novichok Nerve Agents

The use of engineered OPNA-degrading enzymes for the degradation of various toxic agents including insecticides, a series of OPNA surrogates, as well as real chemical warfare agents (cyclosarin, sarin, soman, tabun, VX, A230, A232, A234) are described.

Theoretical study on the toxicity of ‘Novichok’ agent candidates

A theoretical study on several Novichok agent candidates is performed and natural population charge analysis is conducted to evaluate the possible mechanisms of their toxicity, suggesting that these agents might promote the ageing and deformation of acetylcholinesterase.

Recent research on Novichok

The first organophosphate intoxication cases that were published in Archives of Toxicology were caused by parathion (E605), and a high acute toxicity of this chemical was noted, at a human lethal

Is human Paraoxonase 1 the saviour against the persistent threat of Organophosphorus nerve agents?

This review has focussed upon the recent and past events of OPNA use, their mechanism of action and toxicity, and the potential of enzyme based therapy and the various advances in the development of paraoxonase 1 as a countermeasure for OPNA poisoning.

Molecular Recognition of Nerve Agents and Their Organophosphorus Surrogates: Toward Supramolecular Scavengers and Catalysts.

How the science of molecular recognition can expand the pallet of tools for rapid and safe sequestration of nerve agents is described.

A New Class of Bi- and Trifunctional Sugar Oximes as Antidotes against Organophosphorus Poisoning.

Light is shed on the structural restrains of new sugar oximes designed to reach the central nervous system through the glucose transporter located at the blood-brain barrier and their endothelial permeability coefficients with a human in vitro model.



Toxicity of organophosphate nerve agents and related phosphonylated oximes compared to their anticholinesterase activity in neuron cultures.

Comparative studies of O,O-dialkyl-O-chloromethylchloroformimino phosphates: interaction with neuropathy target esterase and acetylcholinesterase.

A quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis indicated that NTE and AChE have different structural and electronic requirements for their respective OP inhibitors, and extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo data now seems justifiable to predict risk of OPIDN.


Abstract Oximes, and in particular oximate salts, can be useful nucleophiles for the treatment of organophosphate nerve agent poisoning and decontamination of chemical warfare agents. In this paper,

Toxic chemical weapons of assassination and warfare: nerve agents VX and sarin

Healthcare providers should recognize symptoms of nerve agent exposure, understand regional and international notification procedures for potential attacks, as well as the indications for and available supply of antidotal therapy.

Diphenhydramine as a protective agent in a rat model of acute, lethal organophosphate poisoning.

Dichlorvos exposure resulted in profound fasciculations within 2 minutes of injection in all cohorts, and diphenhydramine chloride significantly reduced mortality in rats with acute, severe dichlorVos exposure.

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents


Examination of in vivo and in vitro predictions of neuropathic potential indicate that valid predictive QSAR models may be based on the in vitro approach, and adoption of this system would result in reducing experimental animal use, lowering costs, accelerating data production, and enabling standardization of a biochemically based risk assessment of the neuropathy potential of OP compounds.

Formation of models of the interaction between organophosphate compound structure and their ability to inhibit cholinesterase

Computer modelling of relationships between structure of organophosphorous compounds and their anticholinesterase activity revealed some functional peculiarities of these compounds and allowed for rationalisation of search of effective compounds with anticholinergic activity.

[Formation of models of the interaction between organophosphate compound structure and their ability to inhibit cholinesterase].

This study revealed some functional peculiarities of organophosphorous compounds and allowed for rationalisation of search of effective compounds with anticholinesterase activity.