November 2003 event: effects on the Earth’s ionosphere observed from ground-based ionosonde and GPS data

Abstract

Intense late-cycle solar activity during October and November 2003 produced two strong geomagnetic storms: 28 October–5 November 2003 (October) and 19– 23 November 2003 (November); both reached intense geomagnetic activity levels, Kp=9, and Kp=8+, respectively. The October 2003 geomagnetic storm was stronger, but the effects on the Earth’s ionosphere in the… (More)

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