Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval.

@article{Tulving1996NoveltyAF,
  title={Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval.},
  author={Endel Tulving and H J Markowitsch and F E Craik and Reza Habib and Sylvain Houle},
  journal={Cerebral cortex},
  year={1996},
  volume={6 1},
  pages={
          71-9
        }
}
Nine young right-handed men viewed colored pictures of people, scenes, and landscapes. Then, 24 hr later while undergoing PET scanning, they viewed previously studied (OLD) pictures in one type of scan, and previously not seen (NEW) pictures in another. The OLD-NEW subtraction of PET images indicates familiarity, and the NEW-OLD indicates novelty. Familiarity activations, signalling aspects of retrieval, were observed in the left and right frontal areas, and posterior regions bilaterally… 

Tables from this paper

Perceptual and Semantic Components of Memory for Objects and Faces: A PET Study
TLDR
There was consistent material-specific lateralization in frontal and temporal lobe regions when the retrieval of different types of nonverbal stimuli was compared, with objects activating bilateral areas and faces preferentially activating the right hemisphere.
Associative encoding of pictures activates the medial temporal lobes
TLDR
The results not only confirm that the associative encoding and/or consolidation of complex scenes is partially mediated by medial temporal lobe structures, but also demonstrate, for the first time, that associative encode/consolidation is sufficient to produce such an activation.
Functional differentiation of medial temporal and frontal regions involved in processing novel and familiar words: an fMRI study.
TLDR
Evidence is provided for an anterior-posterior functional differentiation within the MTL in processing novel and familiar verbal information and the finding of left MTL lateralization is consistent with lesion-based material-specific models of memory.
Temporal and cerebellar brain regions that support both declarative memory formation and retrieval.
TLDR
Using event-related fMRI, young healthy subjects are scanned while they memorized real-world photographs and subsequently tried to recognize them within a series of new photographs to identify temporal and cerebellar brain areas that support both declarative memory formation and retrieval.
Memory encoding and hippocampally-based novelty/familiarity discrimination networks
The effects of age on the neural correlates of episodic encoding.
TLDR
The results indicate age-related dysfunction in several encoding networks, with sparing of one specifically involved in more elaborate encoding of pictures, which appear to affect verbal memory more than picture memory.
Neural activation and memory for natural scenes: Explicit and spontaneous retrieval.
TLDR
Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories.
Activation of midbrain structures by associative novelty and the formation of explicit memory in humans.
TLDR
Midbrain regions seem to participate selectively in hippocampus-dependent processes of associative novelty and explicit memory formation, but appear to be unaffected by other task-relevant aspects.
Conceptual and perceptual novelty effects in human medial temporal cortex
TLDR
Left parahippocampal cortex demonstrates sensitivity to perceptual novelty/familiarity, and it remains unclear whether this region also is sensitive to novelty/Familiarity in the conceptual domain, while left perirhinal cortex reveals sensitivity to the degree of semantic overlap across exposures but insensitivity to perceptual repetition of the visual word form.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 125 REFERENCES
Distinct neural correlates of visual long-term memory for spatial location and object identity: a positron emission tomography study in humans.
TLDR
The study shows that distinct neural pathways are activated during retrieval of information about spatial location and object identity from long-term memory.
Neuroanatomical correlates of retrieval in episodic memory: auditory sentence recognition.
TLDR
The prevalence of sulcal blood-flow changes may reflect extensive cortical gyrification; it may also indicate that memory-related processes rely on the densely packed neuropil of sulCal regions.
PET studies of encoding and retrieval: The HERA model
We review positron emission tomography (PET) studies whose results converge on the hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry (HERA) model of the involvement of prefrontal cortical regions in the
Functional anatomical studies of explicit and implicit memory retrieval tasks
TLDR
These experiments suggest that areas of frontal cortex play a role in explicit recall and that an effect of priming may be to require less activation of perceptual regions for the processing of recently presented information.
Novelty assessment in the brain and long-term memory encoding
TLDR
It is proposed that the efficacy of encoding on-line information into long-term memory depends on the novelty of the information as determined by these networks, and a test of this “novelty/encoding” hypothesis is reported.
Novelty encoding networks in the human brain: positron emission tomography data.
TLDR
Insular, opercular and temporal regions (e.g. area 37) showed novelty activations not only for visual pictures but also for auditorily presented sentences, and can be thought of as components of a transmodal novelty encoding network.
Brain systems for encoding and retrieval of auditory-verbal memory. An in vivo study in humans.
TLDR
The results of this study indicate that separate brain systems are engaged during the encoding and retrieval phases of episodic auditory-verbal memory, and engage a different, but overlapping, system to that engaged by retrieval from semantic memory.
Functional brain maps of retrieval mode and recovery of episodic information
Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to identify brain regions associated with two component processes of episodic retrieval; those related to thinking back in subjective time (retrieval mode)
Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: levels of processing effect.
TLDR
It is proposed that memory processes are subserved by a wide neurocognitive network and that encoding processes involve preferential activation of the structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex.
Face encoding and recognition in the human brain.
TLDR
A dissociation between human neural systems that participate in the encoding and later recognition of new memories for faces was demonstrated by measuring memory task-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography, and the most striking finding in neocortex was the lateralization of prefrontal participation.
...
...