Novel metabolites from Penicillium crustosum, including penitrem E, a tremorgenic mycotoxin

@article{Kyriakidis1981NovelMF,
  title={Novel metabolites from Penicillium crustosum, including penitrem E, a tremorgenic mycotoxin},
  author={N. Kyriakidis and Eric S. Waight and James B. Day and Peter Mantle},
  journal={Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
  year={1981},
  volume={42},
  pages={61 - 62}
}
Two new indolic metabolites were isolated from Penicillium crustosum and separated from other penitrem mycotoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Penitrem D is a deoxy-penitrem A. Penitrem E is dechloro-penitrem A and was shown to be tremorgenic in mice, although it has only one-third of the activity of penitrem A. Roquefortine was also shown, for the first time, to be an important metabolic product of P. crustosum. 
A novel process for the production of penitrem mycotoxins by submerged fermentation of Penicillium nigricans.
A strain of Penicillium nigricans, which produces both the antifungal antibiotic griseofulvin and tremorgenic penitrem mycotoxins concurrently in static liquid culture, also elaborated both
Biosynthesis of penitrems and roquefortine by Penicillium crustosum
TLDR
Roquefortine and the penitrems were biosynthesised concurrently at an approximately equimolar rate by Penicillium crustosum after growth and sporulation, indicating considerable metabolic flux, though generally directed towards penitrem A as the end product and suggesting a metabolic grid for thepenitrem metabolites.
Penitrem A and analogues: toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics including mechanism of action and clinical significance
TLDR
The clinical symptoms of acute penitrem A intoxication include classical signs of neurotoxicity, such as tremors, convulsions, ataxia and nystagmus, which range from total recovery to death, depending mainly on the level of exposure.
Identification of novel metabolite and its cytotoxic effect on human lymphocyte cells in comparison to other mycotoxins
TLDR
A novel metabolite of P. polonicum isolated from Cameroonian Zea mays by means of preparative silica gel thin layer chromatographic method was tested, in vitro, against cultured human mononuclear lymphocyte cells over 18-hr period in comparison to ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin.
Tremorgenic Mycotoxins: Structure Diversity and Biological Activity
TLDR
This review highlights the wide-ranging biological versatility presented by the indole-diterpene group of compounds and their role in an agricultural and pharmaceutical setting.
Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium
TLDR
The 58 species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillsium produce a large number of bioactive extrolites (secondary metabolites), including several mycotoxins, and several reported producers are reidentified and new producers of known extrolite families are reported for the first time.
An indole diterpenoid isolated from the fungus Drechmeria sp. and its antimicrobial activity
TLDR
The structure of drechmerin I was elucidated based on 1 D and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrum (HRESIMS), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses as well as TD DFT calculations of ECD spectra.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-8 OF 8 REFERENCES
Penitrem A and Roquefortine Production by Penicillium commune
Extracts of Penicillium commune, a fungus isolated from cottonseed, showed biological activity in day-old cockerels. Two neurotoxic metabolites were isolated and identified as penitrem A and
Penicillium crustosum and P. simplicissimum, the Correct Names for Two Common Species Producing Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
TLDR
From comparative taxonomic studies, it is concluded that all of the isolates involved belong to only two species: those producing penitrem A to P. crustosum and those producing verruculogen toP.
Tremorgenic toxins from penicillia. 3. Tremortin production by Penicillium species on various agricultural commodities.
A low temperature (4 C) favors the accumulation of the mycotoxin tremortin when tremortin-producing molds are grown on various agricultural commodities. However, the rate of toxin formation is more
Tremorgenic Toxin from Penicillium cyclopium grown on Food Materials
DRUGS and other compounds capable of causing sustained trembling are rare; in a survey of ten thousand compounds Everett et al. found less than ten with this property1. One of the best known is
Clinical studies on tremorgenic mycotoxicoses in sheep
The clinical responses of sheep dosed orally over seven to 14 weeks with the dried mycelium of a soil-borne mould containing the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A are described. An initial tremoring
Clinical studies on tremorgenic mycotoxicoses in sheep
The clinical responses of sheep dosed orally over seven to 14 weeks with the dried mycelium of a soil-borne mould containing the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A are described. An initial tremoring