The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an energy-producing pathway for aerobic organisms. However, it is widely accepted that the phylogenetic origin of the TCA cycle is the reductive TCA cycle, which is a non-Calvin-type carbon-dioxide-fixing pathway. Most of the enzymes responsible for the oxidative and reductive TCA cycles are common to the two pathways, the difference being the direction in which the reactions operate. Because the reductive TCA cycle operates in an energetically unfavorable direction, some specific mechanisms are required for the reductive TCA-cycle-utilizing organisms. Recently, the molecular mechanism for the “citrate cleavage reaction” and the “reductive carboxylating reaction from 2-oxoglutarate to isocitrate” in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus have been demonstrated. Both of these reactions comprise two distinct consecutive reactions, each catalyzed by two novel enzymes. Sequence analyses of the newly discovered enzymes revealed phylogenetic and functional relationships between other TCA-cycle-related enzymes. The occurrence of novel enzymes involved in the citrate-cleaving reaction seems to be limited to the family Aquificaceae. In contrast, the key enzyme in the reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate appears to be more widely distributed in extant organisms. The four newly discovered enzymes have a number of potential biotechnological applications.