Silica Nanoparticles Sensitize Human Multiple Myeloma Cells to Snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) Venom-Induced Apoptosis and Growth Arrest
Multiple myeloma remains incurable despite advances in conventional chemotherapy and wider applicability of high dose chemotherapy with single and/or tandem autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Although a complete remission rate of 41% and an event-free survival of 43 months have been reported after tandem transplantation, it is highly unlikely that further improvements in the outcome of multiple myeloma will be achieved by escalating cytotoxic chemotherapy alone. Novel biologically based therapies are therefore urgently required. Targeted therapeutic approaches based on: identification of genetic abnormalities in malignant plasma cells; interrupting growth of myeloma cells; triggering apoptotic signaling cascades in tumor cells; modulating growth and survival of multiple myeloma cells in the bone marrow microenvironment, i.e. angiogenesis and cytokine networks; enhancing allogeneic and autologous antimyeloma immunity; and characterizing newer myeloma antigens for serotherapy are under development. These therapies offer great promise, used alone/or in combination with conventional treatment approaches, to improve the outcome in this disease in newly diagnosed/refractory or relapsed patients with multiple myeloma.