ABSTRACT Escherichia coli mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin stress-induced module mediating cell death. It requires the quorum-sensing signal (QS) "extracellular death factor" (EDF), the penta-peptide NNWNN (EcEDF), enhancing the endoribonucleolytic activity of E. coli toxin MazF. Here we discovered that E. coli mazEF-mediated cell death could be triggered by QS peptides from the supernatants (SN) of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the SN of B. subtilis, we found one EDF, the hexapeptide RGQQNE, called BsEDF. In the SN of P. aeruginosa, we found three EDFs: the nonapeptide INEQTVVTK, called PaEDF-1, and two hexadecapeptides, VEVSDDGSGGNTSLSQ, called PaEDF-2, and APKLSDGAAAGYVTKA, called PaEDF-3. When added to a diluted E. coli cultures, each of these peptides acted as an interspecies EDF that triggered mazEF-mediated death. Furthermore, though their sequences are very different, each of these EDFs amplified the endoribonucleolytic activity of E. coli MazF, probably by interacting with different sites on E. coli MazF. Finally, we suggest that EDFs may become the basis for a new class of antibiotics that trigger death from outside the bacterial cells. IMPORTANCE Bacteria communicate with one another via quorum-sensing signal (QS) molecules. QS provides a mechanism for bacteria to monitor each other's presence and to modulate gene expression in response to population density. Previously, we added E. coli EDF (EcEDF), the peptide NNWNN, to this list of QS molecules. Here we extended the group of QS peptides to several additional different peptides. The new EDFs are produced by two other bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, in this study we established a "new family of EDFs." This family provides the first example of quorum-sensing molecules participating in interspecies bacterial cell death. Furthermore, each of these peptides provides the basis of a new class of antibiotics triggering death by acting from outside the cell.