Novel Keto-phospholipids Are Generated by Monocytes and Macrophages, Detected in Cystic Fibrosis, and Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ*

Abstract

12/15-Lipoxygenases (LOXs) in monocytes and macrophages generate novel phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids. Here, we report the generation of two additional families of related lipids comprising 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (KETE) attached to four phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). The lipids are generated basally by 15-LOX in IL-4-stimulated monocytes, are elevated on calcium mobilization, and are detected at increased levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cystic fibrosis patients (3.6 ng/ml of lavage). Murine peritoneal macrophages generate 12-KETE-PEs, which are absent in 12/15-LOX-deficient mice. Inhibition of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase prevents their formation from exogenous 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE in human monocytes. Both human and murine cells also generated analogous hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PEs. The electrophilic reactivity of KETE-PEs is shown by their Michael addition to glutathione and cysteine. Lastly, both 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE and 15-KETE-PE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ reporter activity in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, we demonstrate novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-activating oxidized phospholipids generated enzymatically by LOX and 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in primary monocytic cells and in a human Th2-related lung disease. The lipids are a new family of bioactive mediators from the 12/15-LOX pathway that may contribute to its known anti-inflammatory actions in vivo.

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.405407
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@inproceedings{Hammond2012NovelKA, title={Novel Keto-phospholipids Are Generated by Monocytes and Macrophages, Detected in Cystic Fibrosis, and Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ*}, author={Victoria J. Hammond and A H Morgan and Sarah N. Lauder and Christopher P. Thomas and Sarah M. Brown and Bruce A. Freeman and Clare M Lloyd and Jane Davies and Andrew Bush and A L Levonen and Emilia Kansanen and Luis Villacorta and Y. Eugene Chen and Ned A . Porter and Yoel M. Garcia-Diaz and Francisco J. Schopfer and Valerie O'Donnell}, booktitle={The Journal of biological chemistry}, year={2012} }