Novel, nonreflex tests detect analgesic action in rodents at clinically relevant concentrations.

@article{Andrews2011NovelNT,
  title={Novel, nonreflex tests detect analgesic action in rodents at clinically relevant concentrations.},
  author={Nick Andrews and Sinead Harper and Yasmin Issop and Andrew C. Rice},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={1245},
  pages={11-3}
}
We propose that predictive validity of tests for analgesia may be improved by looking to reinstate specific, innate behaviors suppressed by pain, e.g., burrowing, because effective plasma concentrations in the rat are closer to effective clinical plasma concentrations than those generally used in rodent reflex withdrawal assays. 

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