The DNA damage and subcellular of copper (Cu) in 8-day-exposure winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied to determine Cu genotoxicity mechanisms and compartmentalization. The results showed Cu induced DNA damage significantly in all treated plants, roots are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than shoots. The translocation factors (ratio of Cu concentrations in shoots to those in roots) were from 0.1 to 0.24 with different Cu treatment. Cu concentrations in the different subcellular fractions increased in shoots and roots with the increase of exogenous Cu. Cu was mostly bound to the cell wall of roots while litter Cu was found in the Cell organelle fraction. Further more, excess Cu inhabited the absorption of many nutrition elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Zn and B in wheat seedlings.