The purpose of the present report was to investigate to what extent the new peroxidase substrate Vector VIP (V-VIP) can be used in combination with DAB chromogen for the unequivocal and permanent detection of colocalising antigens within a single neurone, according to a two-colour paradigm. With this aim, re-trograde tract-tracing with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) or fluoro-gold (FG) was performed to disclose individual, identified subpopulations of neurones in the primate substantia nigra projecting to the caudate nucleus or to the putamen, respectively. Each tracer was detected by means of a PAP procedure and finally stained brown using DAB as a chromogen. Subsequently, both series of sections were processed for the immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). TH-immunoreactive neurones were stained purple with the peroxidase substrate V-VIP. As a result of the present procedure, several cell bodies of projection neurones, stained brown, can easily be identified within the primate substantia nigra. Some of these neurones additionally displayed purple TH immunoreaction product located in the neuronal dendrites. By contrast, CTB- or FG-unlabelled neurones only show the typical purple precipitate that belongs to V-VIP substrate, both in the cell body as well as in the dendrites.