Notch, metabolism and macrophages


Notch signaling is a highly conserved and critical pathway that integrates environmental cues to specify cell fate during development. Notch is a single transmembrane receptor with 4 isoforms (Notch1 to 4) and five known Notch ligands. Notch activation is initiated by ligand binding, which leads to sequential proteolytic cleavage and liberation of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) from the membrane. The NICD translocates into the nucleus where it interacts with a DNA binding protein CSL and other nuclear proteins to form a transcriptional co-activator complex [1]. Recent studies have shown that Notch pathway is also involved in liver regeneration/ repair, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and modulation of inflammatory response by regulating macrophage polarization through toll-like receptor 4 and/or NF-κB pathway [2]. It is now clear that Notch functions in cell fate determination extend beyond development. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic reprogramming severs as intrinsic signal to regulate cell differentiation and proliferation [3]. This concept has been demonstrated in macrophages undergoing differentiation. Metabolic reprograming to glycolysis is observed in macrophages polarized to proinflammatory (M1) phenotype as compared to fatty acid oxidation in alternatively activated (M2) macrophages [4]. Glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate, which is further metabolized in cytoplasm under hypoxia to produce lactate. In the presence of oxygen sufficiency, pyruvate is converted in mitochondria to acetyl-CoA, which enters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to generate reducing equivalent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Metabolic switch to glycolysis, however, is energetically unfavorable for energy consuming phagocytosis of M1 macrophages, because glucose metabolism through OXPHOS generate ~18 fold more ATP than through glycolysis. In fact, macrophages are known to rely a significant degree on OXPHOS during phagocytosis and in response to Listeria monocytogenes challenging [5]. Thus, we have investigated the metabolic phenotype in M1 macrophages and whether metabolic reprograming is causally linked to M1 macrophage activation. Our recent study, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation [6], has confirmed that M1 activation of hepatic macrophages in vivo is Notch1 dependent using a mouse model of alcoholic steatohepatitis. We show that NICD1 translocate to both nucleus and mitochondrion in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated M1 macrophages. In nucleus, NICD1 binds to promoter region of M1 genes such as Nos2, Tnf, and Il-17rc, and directly activates transcription of these genes. In mitochondria, NICD1 is enriched in the promoter region of mtDNA displacement loop (D-loop), and expression of mtDNA-encoded electronic transport chain (ETC) components (NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase, and …

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@inproceedings{Xu2015NotchMA, title={Notch, metabolism and macrophages}, author={Jun Xu and Feng Chi and Hidekazu Tsukamoto}, booktitle={Oncotarget}, year={2015} }