Norvaline and Norleucine May Have Been More Abundant Protein Components during Early Stages of Cell Evolution

@article{AlvarezCarreo2013NorvalineAN,
  title={Norvaline and Norleucine May Have Been More Abundant Protein Components during Early Stages of Cell Evolution},
  author={Claudia Alvarez-Carre{\~n}o and Arturo Becerra and Antonio Lazcano},
  journal={Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres},
  year={2013},
  volume={43},
  pages={363-375}
}
The absence of the hydrophobic norvaline and norleucine in the inventory of protein amino acids is readdressed. The well-documented intracellular accumulation of these two amino acids results from the low-substrate specificity of the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic enzymes that act over a number of related α-ketoacids. The lack of absolute substrate specificity of leucyl-tRNA synthase leads to a mischarged norvalyl-tRNALeu that evades the translational proofreading activites and produces… 
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