Influence of demographic variables on neuropsychological test performance after traumatic brain injury.
This article investigates the adequacy of the Heaton-Grant-Matthews norms in correcting age and education effects in the Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. Two hundred and ninety neurological and 346 psychiatric patients were administered the Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Battery. Raw scores were converted to standard scores using the Heaton-Grant-Matthews norms. Ten percent of the variance in standard score profiles could be predicted by patient age and education. The primary effect of age was to decrease the overall level of the profile; the primary effect of education was to increase relative scores on the Aphasia test. When these standard scores were converted to age- and education-corrected T-scores, less than 1% of the variance could be predicted by age and education. When individual tests were examined, the Heaton-Grant-Matthews norms failed to correct 2% of the variance in the Speech Sounds test. Discussion focuses on the usefulness of the Heaton-Grant-Matthews norms in interpreting performance on the Halstead Reitan Neuropsychological Battery.