Normative Data From the Cantab. I: Development of Executive Function Over the Lifespan

  title={Normative Data From the Cantab. I: Development of Executive Function Over the Lifespan},
  author={Cinzia R. De Luca and Stephen J. Wood and Vicki A Anderson and J A Buchanan and Tina M. Proffitt and Kate Mahony and Christos Pantelis},
  journal={Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
  pages={242 - 254}
The study of executive function within a developmental framework has proven integral to the advancement of knowledge concerning the acquisition and decline of higher skill processes. Still in its early stages, there exists a discontinuity in the literature between the exploration of executive capacity in young children and the elderly. Research of age-related differences utilising a lifespan approach has been restricted by the lack of assessment tools for the measurement of executive skills… 
Development Patterns of Executive Functions in Children
Three different development patterns were detected, as well as different interactions between the executive components, and three empirical types were established based on the patterns and relationships between components.
Executive function on the Psychology Experiment Building Language tests
Age-related effects were found over all four tests, especially as age increased from young childhood through adulthood, indicating that the PEBL tests provide valid and versatile new research tools for measuring executive functions.
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Investigating across-tasks intraindividual variability, also termed dispersion, in EF performance revealed that dispersion might be lower at older ages; especially, when associated with low overall ability levels.
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A pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence is shown.
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The similarity in performance of the Brazilian children and adolescents studied and the group of Australian participants examined by the cited authors, despite the socio-cultural and economical differences, points to the suitability of the task for the assessment of attention and working memory in Brazilian children.
Attention and Memory Evaluation Across the Life Span: Heterogeneous Effects of Age and Education
Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.
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As adults with a history of psychiatric illness started out with significantly lower baseline levels of executive functioning, they may require less time before reaching a critical threshold where functional deficits emerge.
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It is demonstrated that not only executive functions but also verbal memory and visuospatial performance continue to develop beyond age 16, as specified in developmental time tables of neurocognitive functions.
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Exploratory factor analysis indicated that metacognition and executive function are served by different factors across all ages, and a multilinguistic experience conferred neither any significant advantage nor disadvantage in both executive function and metacognitive processing across the lifespan.
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The neural substrates of the executive system are examined as well as the evolution of executive functioning, from development to decline, and the ability to inhibit overlearned behavior and verbal fluency is examined.


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Abstract The Tower of London Test is a measure of planning and problem solving. Variations in administration and scoring and lack of normative data has led to difficulties in interpreting
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Factor analyses showed that performance in the executive tests was not simply related to a measure of fluid intelligence, and their performance had a factor loading structure distinct from that for the CANTAB tests of visual memory and learning previously administered to the same sample, and only limited support was found for the hypothesis that cognitive aging depends on slowed information processing.
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The performance of three groups of children on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. A double dissociation paradigm was used, including six executive function tasks (Wisconsin Card
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Fifty preschool children (mean age 3:11 years) took part in an investigation of the relations between children's executive function performance, their understanding of mind and their language skills.
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The development of executive skills through late childhood and early adolescence is plotted and progress in these skills is interpreted with reference to current neurological and cognitive theory.
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  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology
  • 1986
Developmental norms by age for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test are presented to complement and extend existing adult norms for theWCST and to facilitate the clinical use of the WCST as a neuropsychological test in child populations.
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Not only demographic variables, but also individual variables were associated with memory, and albeit at a lesser extend, with executive function test scores, indicating that not only demographic factors, butAlso individual variables have a significant effect on cognitive changes observed during normal aging.