Normalization of serum cortisol concentration with opioid treatment of severe chronic pain.

@article{Tennant2002NormalizationOS,
  title={Normalization of serum cortisol concentration with opioid treatment of severe chronic pain.},
  author={Forest S. Jr. Tennant and Laura Hermann},
  journal={Pain medicine},
  year={2002},
  volume={3 2},
  pages={
          132-4
        }
}
Serum cortisol concentrations may be altered in severe, chronic pain due to excess stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Among 40 consecutive patients with severe, chronic pain 26 (65.0%) demonstrated abnormal serum cortisol concentration. After 90 days of treatment, only 7 (17.5%; p<0.01) continued to show abnormal serum cortisol concentration indicating that serum cortisol and other serologic abnormalities may serve as biologic markers of severe, chronic pain. 
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