Normal atrial activation and voltage during sinus rhythm in the human heart: an endocardial and epicardial mapping study in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation.


BACKGROUND The three-dimensional contributions to human atrial activation in sinus rhythm have not been specifically characterized. We evaluated the sequence of endocardial and epicardial activation and voltage of the atria during normal sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS The study group includes 35 patients with history of symptomatic atrial fibrillation… (More)


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