Normal and Reverse Temperature Dependence in Variation-Tolerant Nanoscale Systems with High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gates

  title={Normal and Reverse Temperature Dependence in Variation-Tolerant Nanoscale Systems with High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gates},
  author={David Wolpert and Paul Ampadu},
The delay dependence on temperature reverses at increasingly larger supply voltages as technology scales into the nanometer regime, causing delay to decrease as temperature increases. This reversal can be problematic for variation-tolerant systems using critical path replicas to determine delay guardbands, as delay may no longer indicate when the system is in danger of thermal runaway. Adaptive voltage scaling, commonly used in variation-tolerant systems, further complicates the temperature… 
A Sensor to Detect Normal or Reverse Temperature Dependence in Nanoscale CMOS Circuits
  • D. Wolpert, P. Ampadu
  • Engineering
    2009 24th IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems
  • 2009
The first temperature dependence sensor to detect whether a system is operating in the ND or RD region is presented, with a 1°C resolution over the military-specified temperature range of -55°C to 125°C.
Exploiting Programmable Temperature Compensation Devices to Manage Temperature-Induced Delay Uncertainty
  • D. Wolpert, P. Ampadu
  • Engineering
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
  • 2012
A new circuit technique to reduce temperature-induced delay uncertainty and integrate PTCDs into a variety of logic gates as well as larger structures such as a 1-bit mirror adder is presented.
Temperature Effects in Semiconductors
The changes in temperature described in the previous chapter affect the speed, power, and reliability of our systems. Throughout this book, we will examine all three of these metrics, though the
Controlling the Temperature Dependence
Temperature variations affect system speed, power, and reliability by altering the threshold voltage (V T ), mobility (μ), and saturation velocity (v sat ) in each device [1, 2]. The resulting
Level shifter speed, power, and reliability trade-offs across normal and reverse temperature dependences
  • D. Wolpert, P. Ampadu
  • Physics
    2010 53rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems
  • 2010
In this paper, we study the impact of the normal and reverse temperature dependences on low-voltage level shifters, which are particularly interesting because they may have components that operate in
A Sensor System to Detect Positive and Negative Current-Temperature Dependences
  • D. Wolpert, P. Ampadu
  • Materials Science
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
  • 2011
A sensor system that determines if the circuit current-temperature (I - T) dependence is positive or negative is presented, shown to achieve improved functionality while maintaining comparable area, energy, and accuracy with alternative temperature sensor designs.
On improving reliability of delay based Physically Unclonable Functions under temperature variations
Two methods for improving the reliability of delay based PUFs, by reducing temperature sensitivity and exploiting the negative temperature coefficient (TCR) property of n+ and p+ polysilicon placed as source feedback resistors are proposed.
Temperature-Aware Delay Borrowing for Energy-Efficient Low-Voltage Link Design
The proposed approach achieves energy savings of up to 40% in a commercial 65 nm technology, including the energy overhead of the temperature-aware system, and is shown to decrease temperature-induced delay variations by 85%.
Managing Temperature Effects in Nanoscale Adaptive Systems
A new method is presented to control a circuit’s temperature dependence by individually tuning pull-up and pull-down networks to their temperature-insensitive operating points, achieving insensitivity at nominal voltage for the first time.
Sensing Temperature Dependence
This chapter proposes a low overhead adaptive temperature sensor, capable of adjusting its resolution and sampling rate based on the current temperature to reduce the energy required to maintain a chip thermal map.


Variation-Aware Adaptive Voltage Scaling System
A critical path emulator architecture is shown to track the changing critical path at different process splits by probing the actual transistor and wire conditions by programming logic and interconnect delay lines to achieve the same delay combination as the actual critical path.
Reversal of temperature dependence of integrated circuits operating at very low voltages
This paper presents one of the first studies on the temperature dependence of integrated circuits operating at very low voltages. It was found that the performance degradation with temperature
Mutual compensation of mobility and threshold voltage temperature effects with applications in CMOS circuits
Mutual compensation of mobility and threshold voltage temperature variations may result in a zero temperature coefficient bias point of a MOS transistor. The conditions under which this effect
The impact of high-/spl kappa/ gate dielectrics and metal gate electrodes on sub-100 nm MOSFETs
The potential impact of high-/spl kappa/ gate dielectrics on device short-channel performance is studied over a wide range of dielectric permittivities using a two-dimensional (2-D) simulator
Supply voltage scaling for temperature insensitive CMOS circuit operation
CMOS supply voltage scaling for temperature independent gate delay is investigated. It is found that the optimum supply voltage which results in temperature insensitive operation is proportional to
Adaptive Frequency and Biasing Techniques for Tolerance to Dynamic Temperature-Voltage Variations and Aging
  • J. Tschanz, N. Kim, V. De
  • Engineering
    2007 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference. Digest of Technical Papers
  • 2007
Temperature, voltage, and current sensors monitor the operation of a TCP/IP offload accelerator engine fabricated in 90nm CMOS, and a control unit dynamically changes frequency, voltage, and body
Combined dynamic voltage scaling and adaptive body biasing for lower power microprocessors under dynamic workloads
Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) reduces the power consumption of processors when peak performance is unnecessary. However, the achievable power saving by DVS alone is becoming limited as leakage power
75 nm damascene metal gate and high-k integration for advanced CMOS devices
An advanced CMOS process has been proposed which include key features: 75 nm gate length damascene metal gate, high-k dielectrics with 1.35 nm EOT. Detailed characterisation (TEM, C-V, split C-V,
On the thermal stability margins of high-leakage current packaged devices
In this paper, a graphical approach of fixed-point iteration is proposed to study the thermal stability of high leakage current, packaged devices. Following this approach, we can obtain the thermal
Leakage Current: Moore's Law Meets Static Power
Off-state leakage is static power, current that leaks through transistors even when they are turned off. The other source of power dissipation in today's microprocessors, dynamic power, arises from