T cell colony formation in normal individuals and untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was studied to determine if there is a deficiency in the number of T cells capable of forming colonies in this disease. In normal individuals, assays using enriched T cells did not reveal the total number of potential colony forming cells, preventing accurate assessment in patients with B cell CLL where enriched T cells are mandatory. Conditions were therefore optimized to obtain the maximal number of colonies, so that accurate comparisons could be made between the potential of normal individuals and patients with CLL. Addition of normal autologous non-T cells to enriched T cells enhanced colony numbers in normal individuals to those seen in the whole mononuclear population. However, addition of normal non-T cells to CLL T cells would have caused a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), which influences T cell colony numbers. Therefore the MLR was bypassed by adding to the enriched T cells, supernatants having characteristics of Interleukin-1 or commercially obtained Interleukin-2. The supernatants with Interleukin-1 activity enhanced T cell colony numbers comparably in both normal individuals and patients with CLL. Interleukin-2 did not increase T cell colony numbers in normal individuals and the increase seen in patients with CLL were not significant. Thus the effect of the lymphokines on T cell colony numbers was comparable in both normal individuals and untreated patients with CLL. We therefore concluded that there are normal numbers of cells which have the potential to form T cell colonies in untreated patients with CLL.